Relevant Peer Reviewed Publications
Ahmed, Kh.T, Lax, N, K Tidgewell (2015) CNS Modulators from the Ocean. In Marine Pharmacognosy: From Beach to Bedside; Ed. Baker, W.; CRC Press.
Patel SK, JM Janjic (2015). Macrophage targeted theranostics as personalized nanomedicine strategies for inflammatory diseases. Theranostics ;5:150-72.
Liu L, Bagia C, JM Janjic (2015). The First Scale-Up Production of Theranostic Nanoemulsions. ; Bioresearch Open Access.
Janjic JM, SK Patel (2015). Perfluorocarbon Theranostic Nanomedicines: Pharmaceutical Scientist's Perspective. In: Ahrens ET, Flogel U, editors. 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Pan Stanford Publishing; 2015.
BJ Kolber (2015). "mGluRs from head to toe in pain." In: Theodore J. Price and Gregory Dussor, editors,
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, Vol. 131, Burlington: Academic Press, 2015,
JR Covvey (2015). Recent developments toward the safer use of opioids in the USA, with a focus on hydrocodone. Res Social Adm Pharm. Published online 13 Feb.
Pope D, Madura JD, M Cascio (2014) β-Amyloid and neprilysin computational studies identify critical residues implicated in binding specificity. J. Chem. Inf. Model. 54, 1157-65.
Wen Y, Liu W, Bagia C, Zhang S, Bai M, Janjic JM, et al. (2014) Antibody-functionalized peptidic membranes for neutralization of allogeneic skin antigen-presenting cells. Acta Biomaterialia.
Liu, Z, Szarecka, A, Yonkunas, M, Speranskiy, K, Kurnikova, M, and M Cascio (2014) Crosslinking constraints and computational models as complementary tools in modeling the extracellular domain of the glycine receptor. PLoS One. 9, e102571.
Lobo, C, Pfalzgraf, A, Giannetti, V, and G Kanyongo (2014). Impact of invalidation and trust in physicians on health outcomes in fibromyalgia patients. J ClinPsychiat-PCC CNS Disord. (In Press).
Lax N, George D, Ignatz C and B Kolber (2014). The mGluR5 Antagonist Fenobam Induces Analgesic Conditioned Place Preference in Mice with Spared Nerve Injury. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 25;9(7):e103524.
Nolan T, Geffert L, Kolber B, Madura J and C Surratt (2014). Discovery of Novel-Scaffold Monoamine Transporter Ligands via in Silico Screening with the S1 Pocket of the Serotonin Transporter. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014 Jul 15.
Sadler K, Stratton J and B Kolber (2014). Urinary bladder distention evoked visceromotor responses as a model for bladder pain in mice. Journal of Visual Experimentation 2014 Apr 27;(86).
Janjic J, Pin S, Patel S, Zhang S, Yang X and M Bai (2014). Design and Development of Fluorinated Nanoemulsions with Optimal Fluorescent, Colloidal and Magnetic Properties for Bimodal Imaging. Biomaterials (2014) (In Press).
Mountain G, Bagia C, Jelier B, Friesen C and J Janjic (2014). Design and formulation of nanoemulsions using 2-(poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide)) perfluoropropyl benzene in combination with linear perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 2014 Jun 1;162:38-44.
Vasudeva K, Andersen K, Zeyzus-Johns B, Hitchens T, Patel S, Balducci A, Janjic J and J Pollock (2014). Imaging neuroinflammaiton in-vivo in a neuropathic pain rat model with near-infrared fluorescence and 19F magnetic resonance. PLoS ONE 9 (2): e90589.
Sadler K, Stratton J, DeBerry J and B Kolber (2013).Optimization of a pain model: effects of body temperature and anesthesia on bladder nociception in mice. PLoS ONE Nov 5; 8(11): e79617.
Janjic J, Patela S, Patrick M, Pollock J, DiVito E and M Cascio (2013) Suppressing inflammation from inside out with novel NIR visible perfluorocarbon nanotheranostics. Proc. SPIE 8596, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications V, 85960L (February 21, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2004625.
Patel SK, Zhang Y, Pollock JA, and Janjic JM (2013) Cyclooxgenase-2 inhibiting perfluoropoly (ethylene glycol) ether theranostic nanoemulsion - In vitro study. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55802. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055802
Balducci A, Wen Y, Zhang Y, Helfer BM, Hitchens TK, Meng WS, Wesa AK, and Janjic J (2013). A novel probe for the non-invasive detection of tumor-associated inflammation. Onco Immunology 2(2).
Crock LW*, Kolber BJ*, Morgan C D, Sadler K E, Vogt SK, Bruchas MR and Gereau RW IV (2012) Central amygdala metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the modulation of visceral pain. The Journal of Neuroscience 32(41):14217-14226. * co-first authors
Goss JR*, Cascio M*, Goins WF, Huang S, Krisky DM, Clarke RC, Johnson JW, Yoshimura N, Gold MS, Glorioso JC (2011) HSV delivery of a ligand-regulated endogenous ion channel gene to sensory neurons results in pain control following channel activation. Molecular Therapy 19, 500-506. * co-first authors
Lamb K, Tidgewell K, Simpson D, Bohn LM and Prisinzano TE (2011) Effects of Herkinorin, a Novel mu Opioid Receptor Agonist Derived from Salvinorin A, on Nociception in Rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 121(3) 181-8.
Montana MC, Conrardy BA, Cavallone LF, Kolber BJ, Rao LK, Greco SC, RW Gereau (2011) Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Antagonism with Fenobam: Examination of Analgesic Tolerance and Side Effect Profile in Mice. Anesthesiology 115(6):1239-1250.
Nolan TL, Lapinsky DJ, Talbot JN, Indarte M, Liu Y, Manepalli S, Geffert LM, Amos ME, Taylor PN, Madura JD, Surratt CK (2011) Identification of a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor by coupling monoamine transporter-based virtual screening and rational molecular hybridization. ACS Chem Neurosci 2:544-552.
Manepalli S, Geffert LM, Surratt CK and Madura JD (2011) Discovery of novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors through development of a protein-based pharmacophore. J Chem Inf Model 51:2417-2426.
Arnett MG, Kolber BJ, Boyle MP, & Muglia LJ (2011) Behavioral insights from mouse models of forebrain--and amygdala-specific glucocorticoid receptor genetic disruption. Molecular and cellular endocrinology 336(1-2):2-5.
Kolber BJ, Montana MC, Carrasquillo Y, Xu J, Heinemann SF, Muglia LJ & RW Gereau (2010) Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the amygdala modulates pain-like behavior. J Neurosci 30(24):8203-8213.
Provenzano A, Lassila HC and Somers DL (2010) The effect of fluid injection on lesion size during radiofrequency treatment period. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 35: 338-342.
Indarte M, Liu Y, Madura JD and Surratt CK (2010) Receptor-based discovery of a plasmalemmal monoamine transporter inhibitor via high-throughput docking and pharmacophore modeling. ACS Chem Neurosci 1:223-233.
Kolber BJ, Howell MP, Wieczorek L, Kelley CL, Onwuzurike CC, Nettles SA, Vogt SK & LJ Muglia (2010) Transient early-life forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone elevation causes long-lasting anxiogenic and despair-like changes in mice. J Neurosci 30(7):2571-2581.
Somers DL, Clemente FR (2009) Contralateral high or a combination of high and low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces mechanical allodynia and alters dorsal horn neurotransmitter content in neuropathic rats. Journal of Pain 10:221-229
Leak RK, Zigmond MJ, and Liou AKF (2008) Adaptation to chronic MG132 reduces oxidative toxicity by a CuZnSOD-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurochemistry. 106: 860-874.
Kolber BJ, Roberts MS, Howell MP, Wozniak DF, Sands MS & LJ Muglia (2008) Central amygdala glucocorticoid receptor action promotes fear-associated CRH activation and conditioning. PNAS 105(33):12004-12009.
Tidgewell K, Groer C, Harding WW, Lozama A, Schmidt M, Marquam A, Hiemstra J, Partilla JS, Dersch CM, Rothman RB, Bohn LM and Prisinzano T (2008) Herkinorin analogues with differential beta-arrestin-2 interactions. J Med Chem 51(8): 2421-2431.
Holden K, Tidgewell K, Marquam A, Rothman RB, Navarro H, and Prisinzano T (2007) Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: exploration of the 1-position. Bio. Med. Chem. Letters. (17): 6111-6115.
O'Donnell LA, Agrawal A, Sabnekar P, Dichter MA, Lynch DR, Kolson DL (2007) Apelin, an endogenous neuronal peptide, protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxic injury. J Neurochem 102(6):1905-1917.
Groer C, Tidgewell K, Moyer R, Harding W, Rothman R, Prisinzano T, and Bohn L (2007) An Opioid Agonist that Does Not Induce Mu Opioid Receptor - Arrestin Interactions or Receptor Internalization. Mol Pharm. (71): 549-557.
O'Donnell LA, Agrawal A, Jordan-Sciutto KL, Dichter MA, Lynch DR, Kolson DL. (2006) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-induced neurotoxicity: roles for the NMDA receptor subtypes. J Neurosci 26(3): 981-990.
Somers DL, Clemente FR (2006) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain: the impact of frequency and electrode position on prevention of allodynia in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type II Physical Therapy 86:698-709.
Leak RK, Liou KF, and Zigmond MJ (2006) Effects of sublethal 6-hydroxydopamine on the response to subsequent oxidative stress in dopaminergic cells: evidence for preconditioning.Journal of Neurochemistry. 99: 1151-1163
Tidgewell K, Harding W, Schmidt M, Lozama A, Cobb H, Shah K, Kannan P, Dersch C, Parrish D, Deschamps J, Rothman R and Prisinzano T (2006) Synthesis of Salvinorin A Analogues as Opioid Receptor Probes. J.Nat.Prod. (69): 914-918.
Surratt CK, Ukairo OT and Ramanujapuram S (2005) Recognition of psychostimulants, antidepressants and other inhibitors of synaptic neurotransmitter uptake by the plasma membrane monoamine transporters. Am Assoc Pharmaceu Sci J 7:Article 74.
Surratt CK and Adams WR (2005) G protein-coupled receptor structural motifs and their application to opioid receptor activation. Curr Topics Med Chem 5:315-324.
Harding WW, Tidgewell K, Schmidt M, Shah K, Dersch CM, Snyder J, Parrish D, Deschamps J, Rothman R and Prisinzano TE(2005) Salvinicins A and B, New Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum. Org. Lett. (7): 3017-3020.
Spivak CE, Beglan CL, Zöllner C and Surratt CK (2003) b-Funaltrexamine, a gauge for the recognition site of wild-type and mutant H297Q -opioid receptors. Synapse 49:55-60.
Somers DL, Clemente FR (2003) The relationship between dorsal horn neurotransmitter content and allodynia in neuropathic rats treated with high frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 84:1575-1583.
Somers DL and Clemente FR (2002) Dorsal horn synaptosomal content of aspartate, glutamate, glycine and GABA are differentially altered following chronic constriction injury to the rat sciatic nerve Neuroscience Letters 323: 171-174.
Wang D, Surratt CK and Sadee W (2000) Calmodulin regulation of basal and agonist-stimulated G protein coupling by the opioid receptor (OP3) in morphine pretreated cells. J Neurochem 75:763-771.
Deng HB, Yu Y, Pak Y, O'Dowd BF, George SR, Surratt CK, Uhl GR, Wang JB (2000) Role for the C-terminus in agonist-induced opioid receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. Biochemistry 39:5492-5499.Zöllner C, Johnson PS, Bei Wang J, Roy AJ Jr, Layton KM, Min Wu J, Surratt CK. (2000) Control of opioid receptor expression by modification of cDNA 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 79:159-162.
Zhang P, Johnson PS, Zöllner C, Wang W, Wang Z, Montes AE, Seidleck BK, Blaschak CJ, Surratt CK (1999) Mutation of human opioid receptor extracellular "disulfide cysteine" residues alters ligand binding but does not prevent receptor targeting to the cell plasma membrane. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 72:195-204.
Somers DL, Somers MF (1999) Treatment of neuropathic pain in a patient with diabetic neuropathy using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the skin of the lumbar region Physical Therapy 79 (8): 767-775.
Makman MH, Dobrenis K and Surratt CK (1998) Properties of mu3 opiate alkaloid receptors in macrophages, astrocytes, and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 437:137-148.
Somers DL, Clemente FR (1998) High frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alters thermal but not mechanical allodynia following chronic constriction injury of the rat sciatic nerve, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 79:1370-1376.
Spivak CE, Beglan CL, Seidleck BK, Hirshbein LD, Blaschak CJ, Uhl GR, Surratt CK.(1997) Naloxone activation of opioid receptors mutated at a histidine residue lining the opioid binding cavity. Mol Pharmacol 52:983-992.
Gillo B, Chorna I, Cohen H, Cook B, Manistersky I, Devary O, Arnon A, Baumann A, Kaupp UB, Pollock J, Selinger Z, B. Minke (1996) Co-expression of Drosophila TRP and TRPL in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes a capacitative Ca2+ entry similar to the light-activated conductance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 93, 14146-14151.
Somers DL, Clemente FR (1996) The neurophysiological basis of peripheral electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of causalgia Physical Therapy Reviews. 1:1-12.
Uhl GR, et al. (1995) Opiate receptor: expression, transgenic mice, and influences of C-terminal and 3'-untranslated regions. Analgesia 1:801-804.
Surratt, CK, et al. (1994) Opiate receptor structure/function relationships. Regulatory Peptides 54:289-290.
Surratt CK, Johnson PS, Moriwaki A, Seidleck BK, Blaschak CJ, Wang JB, Uhl GR (1994) Opiate receptor: charged transmembrane domain amino acids are critical for agonist recognition and intrinsic activity. J Biol Chem 269:20548-20553.
Conference papers, Abstracts, Theses, Book Chapters
Lobo C, Pfalzgraf A, Giannetti V. Self-reported quality of life, treatment effectiveness, attitudes and perceptions of fibromyalgia patients. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2013;26(3):304-346.
Lobo, C, Pfalzgraf, A, Giannetti, V. Self-Reported Quality of Life, Treatment Effectiveness, Attitudes and Perceptions of Fibromyalgia Patients. College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists' Annual Meeting, The Broadmoor, Colorado Springs, CO, April 20-24, 2013. Poster Presentation (National Forum)
Lobo, C, Pfalzgraf, A. Evaluation of fibromyalgia patients in a clinical setting: A literature review. Value in Health. 2012;15(4);44.
Lobo, C, Pfalzgraf, A. Evaluation of fibromyalgia patients in a clinical setting: A literature review. International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Annual International Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington DC, June 2-6, 2012. Poster Presentation (International Forum)
Provenzano, D., Lutton E., Liebert, M. and Somers, D.L. (2011). Increasing Pre-injected Fluid Volume Differentially Alters Lesion Size Parameters Depending on Composition of the Fluid Injected, American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, November 2011.
Surratt CK, et al. (2011) Virtual screening for antidepressant lead compounds using monoamine transporter computational models. Collaborative Research in Computational Neuroscience meeting, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Talbot JN, et al. (2011) Preclinical antidepressant and antipsychostimulant properties of a novel triple reuptake inhibitor lead compound identified via virtual screening. Anxiety and Depression: 21st Neuropharmacology Conference, Washington, DC.
K. Andersen, D. L. Somers, J. A. Pollock 2011. Expression of TRPV1 and splice variants in rat dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury. SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE Annual Meeting, Pain Transduction: TRP Channels II. 273.12/KK1.
Provenzano, D. Lutton E, Somers, D.L., Lassila, H., The Effects of Fluid Pre-injection on Lesion Parameters with Bipolar Radiofrequency Treatment, Annual Pain Medicine Meeting and Workshops, American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, November 2010.
Andersen K. (2010) EXPLORATION OF TRPV1 SPLICE VARIANT EXPRESSION IN RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING SCIATIC NERVE INJURY. M.S. Thesis Duquesne University.
Somers, DL., Clemente, F. Richard., Altering the timing of high (HFS) and low frequency (LFS) transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation to skin located contralateral to a nerve injury differentially alters allodynia and dorsal horn neurotransmitter content in rats, Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, February, 2010.
Surratt CK (2010) Discovery of potential CNS therapeutic lead compounds via high-throughput small molecule virtual docking to monoamine transporter models. NeuroTalk 2010 conference, Singapore.
Surratt CK, Indarte M, Liu Y and Madura JD (2010) Discovery of a monoamine transporter inhibitor via high throughput molecular model docking and pharmacophore modeling. IUPHAR 16th World Congress of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Copenhagen, DK.
Geffert L, et al. (2010) Pharmacologic validation of MOE docking scoring of novel serotonin transporter inhibitors. Chemical Computing Group conference, Montreal.
Nolan T, Gofman A, Surratt CK and Madura JD (2010) Prediction of norepinephrine transporter substrate and inhibitor binding pockets via homology modeling and ligand docking score validation. Chemical Computing Group conference, Montreal.
DiBartola, L.M., Havrilla, K and Somers, D.L., Learning Disparities in the Classroom and to the Clinic, Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Physical Therapy Association, October, 2009
Zeyzus, B (2009) TRPV1 MRNA IS DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED IN DIFFERENT VERTEBRAL LEVELS OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING SCIATIC NERVE INJURY. M.S. Thesis Duquesne University.
Leak RK and Zigmond MJ (2008) Endogenous defenses that protect dopamine neurons: studies with 6-OHDA models of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease: Pathogenic and Therapeutic Insights from Toxin and Genetic Models. (Ed. R Nass and S Przedborski). Elsevier. Ch 13: 173 - 194
Zeyzus, B.A., Pollock, J.A., Somers D.L., Kruth, C. D. and Andersen, K.A., Differential expression of TRP genes and isoforms and their role in nociception using a rat neuropathic pain model. Society for Neuroscience, November 2008.
Somers, David L., Clemente, F. Richard, Cipriani, Brad, Graves, Kristen, Lane, Nicholas, and Zeiler, Adrienne., Application of high (HFS) and low frequency (LFS) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to skin located contralateral to a nerve injury alters allodynia and dorsal horn neurotransmitter content in rats. Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, February, 2008
Somers, D.L., Clemente, F. R., Cipriani, B., Graves, K., Lane, N., Ross, N. and Zeiler, A., Treatment of Neuropathic Rats with Contralateral, Combined Low and High Frequency Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)Prevents Mechanical, but not Thermal Allodynia, Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, February, 2007.
Somers, D.L., Clemente, F.R., Bailey, C., Gregg, M., Marlow, K., Przbysz, M. and Snodgrass, J., Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain: the impact of frequency and electrode position on prevention of allodynia in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type II. Society for Neuroscience, Presented November 2005.
Somers, D.L., Clemente, F.R., Begey, L., Clause, L. and Docherty, B.A., The relationship between dorsal horn neurotransmitter content and allodynia in neuropathic rats treated daily with low frequency TENS. Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association, February, 2005.
Somers, D.L. and Clemente, F.R., High frequency electrical nerve stimulation applied to skin (TENS) opposite a chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats alters dorsal horn content of amino acid neurotransmitters and tends to reduce mechanical allodynia, Society for Neuroscience, Presented October 2003.
Zöllner C, et al. (2002) Studies on two G protein coupled receptor motifs present in TM 6 of the mu opioid receptor. Intl Narcotics Res Conf, Pacific Grove, CA.
Somers, D.L., Clemente, F.R., DeBlassio, J. and Snyder, T, The relationship of dorsal horn content of amino acid neurotransmitters (AA) to thermal and mechanical pain threshold in TENS-treated and untreated neuropathic rats. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 26 (2000).
Spivak CE, Beglan CL, Wang W, Zöllner C and Surratt CK, (2000) Receptor activation by and binding kinetics of the irreversible antagonist b-FNA at the mutant m opioid receptor H297Q. Soc Neurosci Abstr.
Somers, D.L., Clemente, F.R., Opalski, D and Witfill, K, Augmented Ongoing Pain Is Reduced by Daily Application of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (Tens), Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 25: 1679, 1999.
Zhang P, et al. (1998) Mutation of human m opioid receptor extracellular "disulfide cysteine" residues alters ligand binding but not receptor targeting to the cell plasma membrane. Intl Narcotics Res Conf, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
Surratt CK, Spivak CE and Beglan CL (1997) Discrimination of opiate alkaloid agonists and antagonists by the m opioid receptor. Intl Narcotics Res Conf, Hong Kong, China.
Makman MH, Dobrenis K and Surratt CK (1997) Properties of m3 opiate alkaloid receptors in macrophages, astrocytes and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Coll Probl Drug Depend, Nashville, TN.
Somers D.L., Clemente, F.R. and Morgan, R.C., The intra and intertester reliability of commonly used assessments for tactile and thermal sensitivity in rats, Phys Ther. 76(5):S43, 1996.
Somers D.L., Clemente, F.R. and Morgan, R.C., The effect of transcutaneous peripheral electrical nerve stimulation (TPENS) on tactile and thermal sensitivity in a rat model of causalgia, Phys Ther. 76(9):1017, 1996.
Uhl GR, et al. (1995) Morphine-preferring m opiate receptor: structure, function, and expression in the nervous system. Am Neurol Assoc.
Surratt CK, et al. (1994) m Opiate receptor structure/function relationships and molecular modeling. Intl Narcotics Res Conf M-09:25.
Surratt CK (1994) m Opiate receptor structure/function relationships. From: "Advances in the Study of Receptor Structure and Function", NIH Research Symposium, p.30.
Surratt CK, et al. (1994) m Opiate receptor structure/function relationships and molecular modeling. Soc Neurosci Abstr 20:1484.
Johnson PS, et al. (1994) m Opiate receptor: site-directed mutagenesis produces differential effects on second messenger systems. Soc Neurosci Abstr 20:745.
Surratt CK, Johnson PS, Wang JB and Uhl GR (1994) m Opiate receptor: relationship between structure and function. Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol.
Uhl GR, et al. (1994) Human opiate and cocaine receptor cDNAs and genes: molecular and pharmacologic studies. Coll Probl Drug Depend.