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1874 Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Constitution Of The Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania 1874

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1874 Constitution (2.9 MB)

WE, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

ARTICLE I

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the general, great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and unalterably established, WE DECLARE THAT -

Equality and rights of men.
Section 1.

All men are born equally free and independent, and have certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of acquiring, possessing and protecting property and reputation, and of pursuing their own happiness.

Political powers inherent in the people. Their right to reform government.
Section 2.

All power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority and instituted for their peace, safety and happiness. For the advancement of these ends they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform or abolish their government in such manner as they may think proper.

Natural right of conscience and freedom of worship.
Section 3.

All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishments or modes of worship.

Religious opinions not to disqualify for holding office.
Section 4.

No person who acknowledges the being of a God and a future state of rewards and punishments shall, on account of his religious sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or place of trust or profit under this Commonwealth.

Freedom of elections.
Section 5.

Elections shall be free and equal; and no power, civil or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage.

Trial by jury.
Section 6.

Trial by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereof remain inviolate.

Freedom of the press.
Section 7.

The printing press shall be free to every person who may undertake to examine the proceedings of the Legislature or any branch of government, and no law shall ever by made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and every citizen may freely speak, write and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. No conviction shall be had in any prosecution for the publication of papers relating to the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, or to any other matter proper for public investigation or information, where the fact that such publication was not maliciously or negligently made shall be established to the satisfaction of the jury; and in all indictments for libels the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.

Searches and seizures limited.
Section 8.

The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from unreasonable searches and seizures, and no warrant to search any place or to seize any person or things shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation subscribed to by the affiant.

Rights of defense and privileges in criminal prosecutions.
Section 9.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to meet the witnesses face to face, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and in prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; he cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty or property, unless by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land.

Criminal information. Twice in jeopardy. Appropriation of private property to public use.
Section 10.

No person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger, or by leave of the court for oppression or misdemeanor in office. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall private property be taken or applied to public use, without authority of law and without just compensation being first made or secured.

Administration of justice to be free. Suits against the Commonwealth.
Section 11.

All courts shall be open; and every man for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay. Suits may be brought against the Commonwealth in such manner, in such courts and in such cases, as the Legislature may by law direct.

Limitation upon suspension of laws.
Section 12.

No power of suspending laws shall be exercised unless by the Legislature or by its authority.

Excessive bail or fines and cruel punishment forbidden.
Section 13.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.

Prisoners bailable; Habeas Corpus.
Section 14.

All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses when the proof is evident or presumption great: and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No commission of oyer and terminer to issue.
Section 15.

No commission of oyer and terminer or jail delivery shall be issued.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Imprisonment of insolvent debtors limited.
Section 16.

The person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

Laws ex post facto or implied contracts, irrevocable grants, &c., forbidden.
Section 17.

No ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making irrevocable any grant of special privileges or immunities, shall be passed.

No legislative attainder of treason or felony.
Section 18.

No person shall be attained of treason or felony by the Legislature.

Attainder shall not work corruption of blood or forfeiture beyond life. No forfeiture for suicide or in case of death by casualty.
Section 19.

No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the Commonwealth. The estate of such persons as shall destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in cases of natural death, and if any person shall be killed by casualty there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Right of meeting and petition.
Section 20.

The citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.

Right to bear arms.
Section 21.

The right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned.

Subordination of the military to the civil power.
Section 22.

No standing army shall, in time of peace, be kept up without the consent of the Legislature, and the military shall in all cases and at all times be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Quartering of troops in houses.
Section 23.

No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

No title of nobility to be created, etc. or office tenure beyond good behavior.
Section 24.

The Legislature shall not grant any title of nobility of hereditary distinction, nor create any office the appointment to which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior.

Emigration permitted.
Section 25.

Emigration from the State shall not be prohibited.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Everything in this Article excepted from the powers of government.
Section 26.

To guard against the transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government and shall forever remain inviolate.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

ARTICLE II

THE LEGISLATURE

The Legislative power vested.
Section 1.

The legislative power of this Commonwealth shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.

Biennial elections.
Section 2.

Members of the General Assembly shall be chosen at the general election every second year. Their term of service shall begin on the first day of December next after their election. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in either House, the presiding officer thereof shall issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the term.

Legislative terms.
Section 3.

Senators shall be elected for the term of four years and Representatives for the term of two years.

Biennial meetings. Special sessions.
Section 4.

The General Assembly shall meet at twelve o'clock, noon, on the first Tuesday of January every second year, and at other times when convened by the Governor, but shall hold no adjourned annual session after the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight. In case of a vacancy in the office of United States Senator from this Commonwealth, in a recess between sessions, the Governor shall convene the two Houses, by proclamation on notice not exceeding sixty days, to fill the same.

Amendment of November 3, 1959

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Qualifications of Senators and Representatives.
Section 5.

Senators shall be at least twenty-five years of age and Representatives twenty-one years of age. They shall have been citizens and inhabitants of the State four years, and inhabitants of their respective districts one year next before their election (unless absent on the public business of the United States or of this State,) and shall reside in their respective districts during their terms of service.

Disqualification to appointment to office. Members of Congress, etc., ineligible for the General Assembly.
Section 6.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under this Commonwealth, and no member of Congress, or other person holding any office (except of attorney-at-law or in the militia) under the United States or this Commonwealth shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Conviction of certain crimes to disqualify.
Section 7.

No person hereafter convicted of embezzlement of public moneys, bribery, perjury or other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the General Assembly, or capable of holding any office of trust or profit in this Commonwealth.

Compensation.
Section 8.

The members of the General Assembly shall receive such salary and mileage for regular and special sessions as shall be fixed by law, and no other compensation whatever, whether for service upon committee or otherwise. No member of either House shall, during the term for which he may have been elected, receive any increase of salary, or mileage, under any law passed during such term.

Presiding officers. Each house to judge of the qualifications of its members.
Section 9.

The Senate shall, at the beginning and close of each regular session and at such other times as may be necessary, elect one of its members President pro tempore, who shall perform the duties of the Lieutenant Governor, in any case of absence or disability of that officer, and whenever the said office of Lieutenant Governor shall be vacant. The House of Representatives shall elect one of its members as Speaker. Each House shall choose its other officers, and shall judge of the election and qualifications of its members.

Quorum.
Section 10.

A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and compel the attendance of absent members.

Powers of each house.
Section 11.

Each House shall have power to determine the rules of its proceedings and punish its members or other persons for contempt or disorderly behavior in its presence, to enforce obedience to its process, to protect its members against violence or offers of bribes or private solicitation, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, to expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause, and shall have all other powers necessary for the Legislature of a free State. A member expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to either House, and punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar an indictment for the same offence.

Each house shall keep and publish a journal.
Section 12.

Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings and from time to time publish the same, except such parts as require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, at the desire of any two of them, be entered on the journal.

Sessions to be open.
Section 13.

The sessions of each House and of committees of the whole shall be open, unless when the business is such as ought to be kept secret.

Adjournments.
Section 14.

Neither House shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Privileges of members.
Section 15.

The members of the General Assembly shall in all cases, except treason, felony, violation of their oath of office, and breach or surety of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sessions of their respective Houses and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Senatorial districts.
Section 16.

The State shall be divided into fifty senatorial districts of compact and contiguous territory, as nearly equal in population as may be, and each district shall be entitled to elect one Senator. Each county containing one or more ratios of population, shall be entitled to one Senator for each ratio, and to an additional Senator for a surplus of population exceeding three-fifths of a ratio, but no county shall form a separate district, unless it shall contain four-fifths of a ratio, except where the adjoining counties are each entitled to one or more Senators, when such county may be assigned a Senator on less than four-fifths and exceeding one-half of the ratio; and no county shall be divided unless entitled to two or more senators. No city or county shall be entitled to separate representation exceeding one-sixth of the whole number of Senators. No ward, borough or township shall be divided in the formation of a district. The senatorial ratio shall be ascertained by dividing the whole population of the state by the number fifty.

Representative districts.
Section 17.

The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned among the several counties, on a ratio obtained by dividing the population of the State as ascertained by the most recent United States census by two hundred. Every county containing less than five ratios shall have one representative for every full ratio, and an additional representative when the surplus exceeds half a ratio; but each county shall have at least one representative. Every county containing five ratios or more shall have one representative for every full ratio. Every city containing a population equal to a ratio, shall elect separately its proportion of the representatives allotted to the county in which it is located. Every city entitled to more than four representatives, and every county having more than one hundred thousand inhabitants shall be divided into districts of compact and contiguous territory, each district to elect its proportion of representatives according to its population, but no district shall elect more than four representatives.

Apportionments.
Section 18.

The General Assembly at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, and immediately after each United States decennial census, shall apportion the State into senatorial and representative districts agreeably to the provisions of the two next preceding sections.

ARTICLE III

LEGISLATION

Passage of bills.
Section 1.

No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or amended, on its passage through either House, as to change its original purpose.

Reference to committee. Printing.
Section 2.

No bill shall be considered unless referred to a committee, returned therefrom, and printed for the use of the members.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

To contain but one subject expressed in the act.
Section 3.

No bill, except general appropriation bills, shall be passed containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title.

To be read on three days. Amendments to be printed. Yeas and Nays.
Section 4.

Every bill shall be read at length on three different days in each House; all amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the members before the final vote is taken on the bill, and no bill shall become a law, unless on its final passage the vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the persons voting for and against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members elected to each House be recorded thereon as voting in its favor.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Vote concurring in amendments and on reports of conference to be yeas and nays.
Section 5.

No amendment to bills by one House shall be concurred in by the other, except by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against recorded upon the journal thereof; and reports of committees of conference shall be adopted in either House only by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting recorded upon the journals.

Revival of law.
Section 6.

No law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or conferred, by reference to its title only, but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extended or conferred shall be re-enacted and published at length.

Limitations on special legislation, etc.
Section 7.

The General Assembly shall not pass any local or special law:

Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens:

Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs, or school districts:

Changing the names of persons or places:

Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases:

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining roads, highways, streets, or alleys:

Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge companies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form boundaries between this and any other State:

Vacating roads, town-plats, streets or alleys:

Relating to cemeteries, graveyards, or public grounds not of the State:

Authorizing the adoption or legitimatization of children:

Locating or changing county seats, erecting new counties or changing county lines:

Incorporating cities, towns, or villages, or changing their charters:

For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the place of voting:

Granting divorces:

Erecting new townships or boroughs, changing township lines, borough limits or school districts. Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in counties, cities, boroughs, townships, election or school districts:

Changing the law of descent or succession:

Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence in, any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, aldermen, justices of the peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators, auditors, masters in chancery or other tribunals, or providing or changing methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcing of judgments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate:

Regulating the fees, or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, justices of the peace, magistrates or constables:

Regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing of school houses, and the raising of money for such purposes:

Fixing the rate of interest:

Affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability, except after due notice to all parties in interest, to be recited in the special enactment: Remitted fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into the treasury:

Exempting property from taxation:

Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing:

Creating corporations, or amending, renewing or extending the charters thereof:

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any special or exclusive privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association or individual the right to lay down a railroad track:

Nor shall the General Assembly indirectly enact such special or local law by the partial repeal of a general law; but laws repealing local or special acts may be passed:

Nor shall any law be passed granting powers or privileges in any case where the granting of such powers and privileges shall have been provided for by the general law, nor where the courts have jurisdiction to grant the same or give the relief asked for.

Notice of local or special bills.
Section 8.

No local or special bill shall be passed unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or the thing to be effected may be situated, which notice shall be at least thirty days prior to the introduction into the General Assembly of such bill and in the manner to be provided by law; the evidence of such notice having been published, shall be exhibited in the General Assembly, before such act shall be passed.

Signing of bills by presiding officers.
Section 9.

The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the General Assembly after their titles have been publicly read immediately before signing; and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.

Legislative officers.
Section 10.

The General Assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties and compensation of the officers and employees of each House, and no payment shall be made from the State Treasury, or be in any way authorized, to any person, except to an acting officer or employee elected or appointed in pursuance of law.

No extra compensation to officers or contractors.
Section 11.

No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, employee, agent or contractor, after services shall have been rendered or contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim against the Commonwealth without previous authority of law.

Amendment of November 8, 1955

Public printing.
Section 12.

All stationery, printing, paper and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government shall be furnished, and the printing, binding and distributing of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other printing and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meetings of the General Assembly and its committees, shall be performed under contract to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below such maximum price and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts, and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor General and State Treasurer.

No extension of official terms or increase of compensation.
Section 13.

No law shall extend the term of any public officer, or increase or diminish his salary or emoluments, after his election or appointment.

Revenue bills.
Section 14.

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose amendments as in other bills.

Appropriation bills.
Section 15.

The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative and judicial departments of the Commonwealth, interest on the public debt and for public schools; all other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

Payment of moneys from the treasury.
Section 16.

No money shall be paid out of the Treasury, except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrants drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof.

Amendment of November 7, 1961

Appropriations to charitable institutions.
Section 17.

No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution not under the absolute control of the Commonwealth, other than normal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for the public schools of the State, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each House.

Appropriations for charitable purposes, etc., limited.
Section 18.

No appropriations, except for pensions or gratuities for military services, shall be made for charitable, educational, or benevolent purposes, to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation or association.

Amendment of November 7, 1933

Amendment of November 2, 1937

Amendment of November 5, 1963

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Appropriations may be made for widows and orphans of soldiers.
Section 19.

The General Assembly may make appropriations of money to institutions wherein the widows of soldiers are supported or assisted, or the orphans of soldiers are maintained and educated; but such appropriations shall be applied exclusively to the support of such widows and orphans.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Power over municipal administration not to be delegated.
Section 20.

The General Assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any municipal function whatever.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

No limitation of damages for certain injuries. Nor of time for bringing suits.
Section 21.

No act of the General Assembly shall limit the amount to be recovered for injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to persons or property; and, in case of death from such injuries, the right of action shall survive, and the General Assembly shall prescribe for whose benefit such actions shall be prosecuted. No act shall prescribe any limitations of time within which suits may be brought against corporations for injuries to persons or property, or for other causes different from those fixed by general laws regulating actions against natural persons, and such acts now existing are avoided.

Amendment of November 2, 1915

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Investment of trust funds.
Section 22.

No act of the General Assembly shall authorize the investment of trust funds by executors, administrators, guardians or other trustees, in the bonds or stock of any private corporation, and such acts now existing are avoided saving investments heretofore made.

Amendment of November 7, 1933

Repeal of May 16, 1967

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Changes of venue.
Section 23.

The power to change the venue in civil and criminal cases shall be vested in the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law.

No obligation of corporations to the State to be released, etc.
Section 24.

No obligation or liability of any railroad or other corporation, held or owned by the Commonwealth, shall ever be exchanged, transferred, remitted, postponed or in any way diminished by the General Assembly, nor shall such liability or obligation be released, except by payment thereof into the State Treasury.

Repeal of May 16, 1967

Limitations of legislative power at special sessions.
Section 25.

When the General Assembly shall be convened in special session, there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Concurrent orders, resolutions, and votes to presented to the Governor.
Section 26.

Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of both Houses may be necessary, except on the question of adjournment, shall be presented to the Governor and before it shall take effect be approved by him, or being disapproved, shall be repassed by two-thirds of both Houses according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

No State inspectors of merchandise.
Section 27.

No State office shall be continued or created for the inspection of measuring of any merchandise, manufacture or commodity, but any county or municipality may appoint such officers when authorized by law.

Repeal of May 16, 1967

Changing location of State Capital.
Section 28.

No law changing the location of the Capital of the State shall be valid until the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the Commonwealth at a general election and ratified and approved by them.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Bribery by members of legislature.
Section 29.

A member of the General Assembly who shall solicit, demand or receive, or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any company, corporation or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, testimonial, reward, thing of value or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote or official action shall be in any way influenced thereby, or who shall solicit or demand any such money or other advantage, matter or thing aforesaid for another, as the consideration of his vote or official influence, or for the withholding the same, or shall give or withhold his vote or influence in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter or thing to another, shall be held guilty of bribery within the meaning of this Constitution, and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby for said offence, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.

Repeal of May 16, 1967

Bribery of members of General Assembly and officers.
Section 30.

Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, give or promise, any money, or thing of value, testimonial, privilege, or personal advantage, to any executive or judicial officer, or member of the General Assembly, to influence him in the performance of any of his public or official duties, shall be guilty of bribery and be punished in such manner as shall be provided by law.

Repeal of May 16, 1967

The offence of corrupt solicitation to be punished by fine and imprisonment.
Section 31.

The offence of corrupt solicitation of members of the General Assembly or of public officers of the State or any municipal division thereof, and any occupation or practice of solicitation of such members or officers to influence their official action, shall be defined by law and shall be punished by fine and imprisonment.

Repeal of May 16, 1967

Amendment of November 7, 1967

Witnesses to testify in cases of bribery and solicitation. Punishment.
Section 32.

Any person may be compelled to testify in any lawful investigation or judicial proceeding against any person who may be charged with having committed the offence of bribery or corrupt solicitation, or practices of solicitation, and shall not be permitted to withhold his testimony upon the ground that it may criminate himself or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterwards be used against him in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony, and any person convicted of either of the offences aforesaid shall, as part of the punishment therefor, be disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit in this Commonwealth.

Repeal of May 16, 1967

Interested member shall not vote.
Section 33.

A member who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill proposed or pending before the General Assembly shall disclose the fact to the House of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Section 34.

Added by Amendment of November 6, 1923

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Section 35.

Added by Amendment of November 5, 1963

Amendment of May 16, 1967 

ARTICLE IV

THE EXECUTIVE

Executive officers.
Section 1.

The Executive Department of this Commonwealth shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Attorney General, Auditor General, State Treasurer, Secretary of Internal Affairs and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Governor. His election. Returns of election. Contested elections.
Section 2.

The supreme executive power shall be vested in the Governor, who shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; he shall be chosen on the day of the general election, by the qualified electors of the Commonwealth, at the places where they shall vote for Representatives. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the President of the Senate, who shall open and publish them in the presence of the members of both Houses of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor, but if two or more be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen Governor by the joint vote of the members of both Houses. Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to be selected from both Houses of the General Assembly, and formed and regulated in such manner as shall be directed by law.

Term of the Governor.
Section 3.

The Governor shall hold his office during four years from the third Tuesday of January next ensuing his election, and shall not be eligible to the office for the next succeeding term.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

The Lieutenant Governor.
Section 4
.

A Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen at the same time, in the same manner, for the same term, and subject to the same provisions as the Governor; he shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Qualifications of Governor and Lieutenant Governor.
Section 5.

No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor except a citizen of the United States, who shall have attained the age of thirty years, and have been seven years next preceding his election an inhabitant of the State, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or of this State.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Congressmen, &c., disqualified.
Section 6.

No member of Congress or person holding any office any office under the United States or this State shall exercise the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Governor to command militia.
Section 7.

The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the Commonwealth, and of the militia, except when they shall be called into actual service of the United States.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Power of Governor to appoint with consent of Senate. To fill vacancies. Senate to act on nominations with open doors. Votes to be recorded.
Section 8.

He shall nominate and, by and with the advice and consent of two-thirds of all the members of the Senate, appoint a Secretary of the Commonwealth and an Attorney General during pleasure, a Superintendent of Public Instruction for four years, and such other officers of the Commonwealth as he is or may be authorized by the Constitution or by law to appoint; he shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen, in offices to which he may appoint, during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session: he shall have power to fill any vacancy that may happen, during the recess of the Senate, in the office of Auditor General, State Treasurer, Secretary of Internal Affairs or Superintendent of Public Instruction, in a judicial office, or in any other elective office which he is or may be authorized to fill; if the vacancy shall happen during session of the Senate, the Governor shall nominate to the Senate, before their final adjournment, a proper person to fill said vacancy; but in any such case of vacancy, in an elective office, a person shall be chosen to said office at the next general election, unless the vacancy shall happen within three calendar months immediately preceding such election, in which case the election for said office shall be held at the second succeeding general election. In acting on Executive nominations the Senate shall sit with open doors, and, in confirming or rejecting the nominations of the Governor, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and shall be entered on the journal.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Pardoning power.
Section 9.

He shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, to grant reprieves, commutation of sentence and pardons, except in cases of impeachment; but no pardon shall be granted, nor sentence commuted, except upon the recommendation in writing of the Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Attorney General and Secretary of Internal Affairs, or any three of them, after full hearing, upon due public notice and in open session, and such recommendation , with the reasons therefor at length, shall be recorded and filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Governor may require information from Executive officers.
Section 10.

He may require information in writing from the officers of the Executive Department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Shall give information and recommend measures to General Assembly.
Section 11.

He shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly information of the state of the Commonwealth, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may judge expedient.

May convene General Assembly and adjourn the two Houses when they disagree.
Section 12.

He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly, and in case of disagreement between the two Houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not exceeding four months. He shall have power to convene the Senate in extraordinary session by proclamation for the transaction of Executive business.

Lieutenant Governor to act as Governor.
Section 13.

In the case of the death, conviction on impeachment, failure to qualify, resignation, or other disability of the Governor, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office, for the remainder of the term, or until the disability be removed, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

President pro temp of the Senate.
Section 14.

In case of a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor, or when the Lieutenant Governor shall be impeached by the House of Representatives, or shall be unable to exercise the duties of his office, the powers, duties, and emoluments thereof for the remainder of the term, or until the disability be removed, shall devolve upon the President pro tempore of the Senate; and the President pro tempore of the Senate shall in like manner become Governor if a vacancy or disability shall occur in the office of Governor; his seat as Senator shall become vacant whenever he shall become Governor, and shall be filled by election as any other vacancy in the Senate.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Approval of bills. Vetoes. Retained bills to become law. Exception.
Section 15.

Every bill which shall have passed both Houses shall be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if he shall not approve he shall return it with his objections to the House in which it shall have originated, which House shall enter the objections at large upon their journal, and proceed to re-consider it. If, after such re-consideration, two-thirds of all the members elected to that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent with the objections to the other House by which likewise it shall be re-considered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the members elected to that House it shall be a law; but in such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each House, respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within ten days after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall be a law, unless he shall file the same, with his objections, in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and give notice thereof by public proclamation within thirty days after such adjournment.

A partial veto allowed on appropriation bills.
Section 16.

The Governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any bill, making appropriations of money, embracing distinct items, and the part or parts of the bill approved shall be the law, and the item or items of appropriation disapproved shall be void, unless re-passed according to the rules and limitations prescribed for the passage of other bills over the Executive veto.

Chief Justice to preside on trial of contested election of Governor or Lieutenant Governor.
Section 17.

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside upon the trial of any contested election of Governor or Lieutenant Governor and shall decide questions regarding the admissibility of evidence, and shall, upon request of the committee, pronounce his opinion upon other questions of law involved in the trial. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall exercise the duties of their respective offices until their successors shall be duly qualified.

Secretary of Commonwealth.
Section 18.

The Secretary of the Commonwealth shall keep a record of all official acts and proceedings of the Governor, and when required lay the same, with all papers, minutes and vouchers relating thereto, before either branch of the General Assembly, and perform such other duties as may be enjoined upon by law.

Repealed on May 16, 1967

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Secretary of Internal Affairs.
Section 19.

The Secretary of Internal Affairs shall exercise all of the powers and perform all the duties of the Surveyor General, subject to such changes as shall be made by law. His department shall embrace a bureau of industrial statistics, and he shall discharge such duties relating to corporations, to the charitable institutions, the agricultural, manufacturing, mining, mineral, timber and other material or business interests of the State as may be prescribed by law. He shall annually, and at such other times as may be required by law, make report to the General Assembly.

Repealed on May 16, 1967

Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Section 20.

The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall exercise all the powers and perform all the duties of the Superintendent of the Common Schools, subject to such changes as shall be made by law.

Repealed on May 16, 1967

Terms of heads of departments.
Section 21.

The term of the Secretary of Internal Affairs shall be four years; of the Auditor General three years; and of the State Treasurer two years. These officers shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the State at general elections. No person elected to the office of Auditor General or State Treasurer shall be capable of holding the same office for two consecutive terms.

Amendment of November 9, 1909

Amendment of November 7, 1961

Seal of state. Commissions to be signed and sealed.
Section 22.

The present Great Seal of Pennsylvania shall be the seal of the State. All commissions shall be in the name and by authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and be sealed with the State seal and signed by the Governor.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Schedule.

Added by Amendment of May 16, 1967

ARTICLE V

THE JUDICIARY

The courts.
Section 1.

The judicial power of this Commonwealth shall be vested in a Supreme Court, in courts of common pleas, courts of oyer and terminal and general jail delivery, courts of quarter sessions of the peace, orphans' court, magistrates' court, and in such other courts as the General Assembly may from time to time establish.

The Supreme Court. Tenure of judges. Chief Justice.
Section 2.

The Supreme Court shall consist of seven judges, who shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at large. They shall hold their offices for the term of twenty-one years, if they so long behave themselves well, but shall not be again eligible. The judge whose commission shall first expire shall be chief justice, and thereafter each judge whose commission shall first expire shall in turn be chief justice.

Jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
Section 3.

The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court shall extend over the State, and the judges thereof shall, by virtue of their offices, be justices of oyer and terminer and general jail delivery in the several counties; they shall have original jurisdiction in cases of injunction where a corporation is a party defendant, of habeas corpus, of mandamus to courts of inferior jurisdiction, and of quo warranto as to all officers of the Commonwealth whose jurisdiction extends over the State, but shall not exercise any other original jurisdiction; they shall have appellate jurisdiction by appeal, certiorari or writ of error in all cases, as is now or may hereafter be provided by law.

Courts of common pleas. Districts not to contain more than four counties.
Section 4.

Until otherwise directed by law, courts of common pleas shall continue as at present established, except as herein changed; not more than four counties shall, at any time, be included in one judicial district organized for said courts.

Judicial districts. Office of associate judge abolished.
Section 5.

Whenever a county shall contain forty thousand inhabitants it shall constitute a separate judicial district, and shall elect one judge learned in the law; and the General Assembly shall provide for additional judges, as the business of the said districts may require. Counties containing a population less than is sufficient to constitute separate districts shall be formed into convenient single districts, or, if necessary, may be attached to contiguous districts as the General Assembly may provide. The office of associate judge, not learned in the law, is abolished in counties forming separate districts; but the several associate judges in office when this Constitution shall be adopted shall serve for their unexpired terms.

Common pleas courts in Philadelphia and Allegheny. Increase of judges in common pleas courts.
Section 6.

In the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in the district courts and courts of common pleas, subject to such changes as may be made by this Constitution or by law shall be in Philadelphia vested in four, and in Allegheny in two, distinct and separate courts, of equal and co-ordinate jurisdiction composed of three judges each; the said courts in Philadelphia shall be designated respectively as the courts of common pleas number one, number two, number three, and number four, and in Allegheny as the court of common pleas number one and number two, but the number of said courts may be by law increased from time to time, and shall be in like manner designated by successive numbers; the number of judges in any of said courts, or in any county where the establishment of an additional court may be authorized by law, may be increased from time to time, and whenever such increase shall amount in the whole to three, such three judges shall compose a distinct and separate court as aforesaid, which shall be numbered as aforesaid. In Philadelphia all suits shall be instituted in the said courts of common pleas without designating the number of said court, and the several courts shall distribute and apportion the business among them in such manner as shall be provided by rules of court, and each court, to which any suit shall be thus assigned, shall have exclusive jurisdiction thereof, subject to change of venue, as shall be provided by law. In Allegheny each court shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all proceedings at law and in equity, commenced therein, subject to change of venue as may be provided by law.

Amendment of November 7, 1911

Prothonotary in Philadelphia. Separate dockets for courts; but one judgment and lien docket.
Section 7.

For Philadelphia, there shall be one prothonotary's office, and one prothonotary for all said courts to be appointed by the judges of said courts, and to hold office for three years, subject to removal by a majority of the said judges; the said prothonotary shall appoint such assistants as may be necessary and authorized by said courts; and he and his assistants shall receive fixed salaries to be determined by law and paid by said county; all fees collected in said office, except such as may by law due to the Commonwealth, shall be paid by the prothonotary into the county treasury. Each court shall have its separate dockets, except the judgment docket which shall contain the judgments and liens of all the said courts, as is or may be directed by law.

Criminal courts in Philadelphia and Allegheny.
Section 8.

The said courts in the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny, respectively, shall from time to time, in turn, detail one or more of their judges to hold the courts of oyer and terminer and the courts of quarter sessions of the peace of said counties, in such manner as may be directed by law.

Jurisdiction of common pleas judges.
Section 9.

Judges of the court of common pleas learned in the law shall be judges of the courts of oyer and terminer, quarter sessions of the peace and general jail delivery, and of the orphans' court, and within their respective districts shall be justices of the peace as to criminal matters.

May issue writs of certiorari to inferior courts.
Section 10.

The judges of the courts of common pleas, within their respective counties, shall have power to issue writs of certiorari justices of the peace and other inferior courts, not of record, and to cause their proceedings to be brought before them, and right and justice to be done.

Justices of the peace and aldermen.
Section 11.

Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, justices of the peace or aldermen shall be elected in the several wards, districts, boroughs and townships, at the time of the election of constables, by the qualified electors thereof, in such manner as shall be directed by law, and shall be commissioned by the Governor for a term of five years. No township, ward, district, or borough shall elect more than two justices of the peace or aldermen without the consent of a majority of the qualified electors within such township, ward, or borough; no person shall be elected to such office unless he shall have resided within the township, borough, ward or district for one year next preceding his election. In cities containing over fifty thousand inhabitants, not more than one alderman shall be elected in each ward or district.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Magistrates in Philadelphia.
Section 12.

In Philadelphia there shall be established, for each thirty thousand inhabitants, one court not of record, of police and civil causes, with jurisdiction not exceeding one hundred dollars; such courts shall be held by magistrates on whose term of office shall be five years, and they shall be elected on general ticket by the qualified voters at large, and in election of the said magistrates, no voter shall vote for more than two-thirds of the number of persons to be elected when more than one are to be chosen; they shall be compensated only by fixed salaries, to be paid by said county; and shall exercise such jurisdiction, civil and criminal, except as herein provided, as is now exercised by aldermen, subject to such changes, not involving an increase of civil jurisdiction or conferring political duties, as may be made by law. In Philadelphia the office of alderman is abolished.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Section 13.

All fees, fines, and penalties in said courts shall be paid into the county treasury.

Appeals from summary conviction.
Section 14.

In all cases of summary conviction in this Commonwealth, or of judgment in suit for a penalty, before a magistrate or court not of record, either party may appeal to such court of record as may be prescribed by law, upon allowance of the appellate court or judge thereof upon cause shown.

Election and term of judges. Removal.

Section 15. All judges required to be learned in the law, except the judges of the Supreme Court, shall be elected by qualified electors of the respective districts over which they are to preside, and shall hold their office for the period of ten years, if they shall so long behave themselves well; but for any reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the Governor may remove any of them on the address of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly.

Election of judges of Supreme Court by limited vote.
Section 16.

 Whenever two judges of the Supreme Court are to be chosen for the same term of service each voter shall vote for one only, and when they are to be chosen he shall vote for no more than two; candidates highest in vote shall be declared elected.

Priority of commissions of judges.
Section 17
.

Should any two or more judges of the Supreme Court, or any two or more judges of the court of common pleas for the same district, be elected at the same time, they shall as soon after the election as convenient, cast lots for priority of commission and certify the result to the Governor, who shall issue their commissions in accordance therewith.

Compensation of judges. Disqualification.
Section 18.

The judges of the supreme court and of the several courts of common pleas, and all other judges required to be learned in the law, shall at stated times receive for their services an adequate compensation which shall be fixed by law, and paid by the state. They shall receive no other compensation, fees, or perquisites of office, for their services from any source, nor hold any other office of profit under the United States, this state, or any other state.

Residence of judges.
Section 19.

The judges of the Supreme Court during their continuance in office, shall reside within the districts for which they shall be, respectively, elected.

Chancery powers of courts of common pleas.
Section 20.

The several courts of common pleas, besides the powers herein conferred, shall have and exercise within their respective districts, subject to such changes as may be made by law, such chancery powers as are now vested by law in the several courts of common pleas of this commonwealth, or as may hereafter be conferred upon them by law.

No extra judicial duties for judges.
Section 21.

No duties shall be imposed by law upon the Supreme Court or any of the judges thereof, except such as are judicial; nor shall any of the judges exercise any power of appointment except as herein provided. The court of nisi prius is hereby abolished, and no court of original jurisdiction, to be presided over by any one or more of the judges of the supreme court shall be established.

Separate orphans' courts. Register of wills to be clerk thereof. Accounts therein to be audited by courts.
Section 22.

In every county wherein the population shall exceed one hundred and fifty thousand the General Assembly shall, and in any other county may, establish a separate orphans' court to consist of one or more judges, who shall be learned in the law, which court shall exercise all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in, or which may hereafter by conferred upon, the orphans' courts, and thereupon the jurisdiction of the judges of the court of common pleas within such county in orphans' court proceedings shall cease and determine. In any county in which a separate orphans' court shall be established, the register of wills shall be clerk of such court, and subject to its directions in all matters pertaining to his office; he may appoint assistant clerks, but only with consent and approval of said court. All accounts filed with him as register or as clerk of the said separate orphans' court shall be audited by the court without expense to parties, except where all parties in interest in a pending proceeding shall nominate an auditor, whom the court may in its discretion appoint. In every county orphans' courts shall possess all the powers and jurisdiction of a registers' court, and separate registers' courts are hereby abolished.

Style of process and indictment.
Section 23.

The style of all process shall be, "The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania." All prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and conclude, "against the peace and dignity of the same."

Review in Supreme Court in criminal cases.
Section 24.

In all cases of felonious homicide, and in such other criminal cases as may be provided by law, the accused, after conviction and sentence, may remove the indictment, record, and all proceedings to the Supreme Court for review.

Vacancies in courtsñhow filled.
Section 25.

Any vacancy happening by death, resignation, or otherwise, in any court of record, shall be filled by appointment by the Governor, to continue till the first Monday of January next succeeding the first general election, which shall occur three or more months after the happening of such a vacancy.

Uniform laws for the courts, &c. Special courts prohibited.
Section 26.

All laws relating to courts shall be general and of uniform operation, and the organization, jurisdiction, and powers of all courts of the same class or grade, so far as regulated by law, and the force and effect of the process and judgments of such courts shall be uniform; and the General Assembly is hereby prohibited from creating other courts to exercise the powers vested by this constitution in the judges of the courts of common pleas and orphans' courts.

Parties may submit issues of fact to the court. Appeals.
Section 27.

The parties by agreement filed may, in any civil case, dispense with trial by jury, and submit the decision of such case to the court having jurisdiction thereof, and such court shall hear and determine the same; and the judgment thereon shall be subject to a writ of error, as in other cases.

ARTICLE VI

IMPEACHMENT AND REMOVAL FROM OFFICE

Impeachment.
Section 1.

The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment.

How tried.
Section 2.

All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate, when sitting for that purpose the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation; no person shall be convicted without concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

What officers impeached. Judgment.
Section 3.

The Governor and all other civil officers shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office, but judgment in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of trust or profit under this Commonwealth; the person accused, whether convicted or acquitted, shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law.

Condition of official tenure. Removal.
Section 4.

All officers shall hold their offices on the condition that they behave themselves while in office, and shall be removed on conviction of misbehavior in office or of any infamous crime. Appointed civil officers, other than judges of the courts of record and the Superintendent of Public Instruction, may be removed at the pleasure of the power by which they shall have been appointed. All officers elected by the people, except Governor, Lieutenant Governor, members of the General Assembly, and judges of the courts of record learned in the law, shall be removed by the Governor for reasonable cause, after due notice and full hearing, on the address of two-thirds of the Senate.

ARTICLE VII

OATH OF OFFICE

General oath of office.
Section 1.

Senators, Representatives and all judicial, State and county officers shall, before entering on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this Commonwealth, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity; that I have not paid or contributed, or promised to pay or contribute, either directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing, to procure my nomination or election, (or appointment,) except for necessary and proper expenses expressly authorized by law; that I have not knowingly violated any election law of this Commonwealth, or procured it to be done by others on my behalf; that I will not knowingly receive, directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing for the performance or non-performance of any act or duty pertaining to my office, other than the compensation allowed by law."

The foregoing oath shall be administered by some person authorized to administer oaths, and in the same case of State officers and judges of the Supreme Court, shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and in the case of other judicial and county officers, in the office of the prothonotary of the county in which the same is taken; any person refusing to take said oath or affirmation shall forfeit his office; and any person who shall be convicted of having sworn or affirmed falsely, or of having violated said oath or affirmation, shall be guilty of perjury, and be forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit within this Commonwealth. The oath to the members of the Senate and House of Representatives shall be administered by one of the judges of the Supreme Court or of a court of common pleas learned in the law, in the hall of the House to which the members shall be elected.

ARTICLE VIII

SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS

Qualifications of voters.
Section 1.

Every male citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections:

First--He shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month.

Second--He shall have resided in the State one year (or if, having previously been a qualified elector or native born citizen of the State, he shall have removed therefrom and returned, then six months) immediately preceding the election.

Third--He shall have resided in the election district where he shall offer to vote at least two months immediately preceding the election.

Fourth--If twenty-two years of age or upwards, he shall have paid within two years a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least two months and paid at least one month before the election.

Amendment of November 5, 1901

Amendment of November 7, 1933

Amendment of November 3, 1959

Amendment of May 16, 1967

General elections.
Section 2.

The general election shall be held annually on the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November, but the General Assembly may be law fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each House consenting thereto.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Municipal elections.
Section 3.

All elections for city, ward, borough and township officers, for regular terms of service, shall be held on the third Tuesday of February.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Amendment of November 4, 1913

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Elections to be by ballot and ballots numbered. Endorsements thereon authorized.
Section 4.

All elections by the citizens shall be by ballot. Every ballot voted shall be numbered in the order in which it shall be received, and the number recorded by the election officers on the list of voters, opposite the name of the elector who presents the ballot. Any elector may write his name upon his ticket or cause the same to be written thereon and attested by a citizen of the district. The election officers shall be sworn or affirmed not to disclose how any elector shall have voted unless required to do so as witensses in a judicial proceeding.

Amendment of November 5, 1901

Electors privileged from arrest.
Section 5.

Electors shall in all cases except treason, felony and breach or surety of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance on elections and in going to and returning therefrom.

Soldier voting.
Section 6.

Whenever any of the qualified electors of this Commonwealth shall be in actual military service, under a requisition from the President of the United States or by the authority of this Commonwealth, such electors may exercise the right of suffrage in all elections by the citizens, under such regulations as are or shall be prescribed by law, as fully as if they were present at their usual place of election.

Repealed. May 16, 1967

Election laws to be uniform, but unregistered electors may vote.
Section 7.

All laws regulating the holding of elections by the citizens or for the registration of electors shall be uniform throughout the State, but no elector shall be deprived of the privilege of voting by reason of his name not being registered.

Amendment of November 5, 1901

Amendment of November 6, 1928

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Corruption to disqualify voters. Challenge.
Section 8.

Any person who shall give, or promise or offer to give, to an elector, any money, reward or other valuable consideration for his vote at an election, or for withholding the same, or who shall give or promise to give such consideration to any other person or party for such elector's vote for the withholding thereof, and any elector who shall receive or agree to receive, for himself or for another, any money, reward or other valuable consideration for his vote at an election, or for withholding the same, shall thereby forfeit the right to vote at such election, and any elector whose right to vote shall be challenged for such cause before the election officers, shall be required to swear or affirm that the matter of the challenge is untrue before his vote shall be received.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Candidate guilty of bribery, &c., disqualified from office. Wilful violation of election laws to disqualify for voting.
Section 9.

Any person who shall, while a candidate for office, be guilty of bribery, fraud, or wilful violation of any election law, shall be forever disqualified from holding an office of trust or profit in this Commonwealth; and any person convicted of wilful violation of the election laws shall, in addition to any penalty provided by law, be deprived of the right of suffrage absolutely for a term of four years.

Repealed on May 16, 1967

Witnesses not to withhold testimony in election cases.
Section 10.

In trials of contested elections and in proceedings for the investigation of elections, no person shall be permitted to withhold his testimony upon the ground that it may criminate himself or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterwards be used against him in any judicial proceedings except for perjury in giving such testimony.

Amendment of May 16, 1967

Election districts.
Section 11.

Townships, and wards of cities or boroughs, shall form or be divided into election districts of compact and contiguous territory, in such manner as the court of quarter sessions of the city or county in which the same are located may direct; but districts in cities of over one hundred thousand inhabitants shall be divided by the courts of quarter sessions, having jurisdiction therein, whenever at the next preceding election more than two hundred and fifty votes shall have been polled therein; and other election districts whenever the court of the proper county shall be of opinion that the convenience of the electors and the public interests will be promoted thereby.

Amendment of November 6, 1928

Representatives to vote viva voce.
Section 12.

All elections by persons in a representative capacity shall be viva voce.

Residence of voters not gained or lost in certain cases.
Section 13.

For the purposes of voting no person shall be deemed to have gained a residence by reason of his presence, or lost it by reason of his absence, while employed in the service, either civil or military, of this State or of the United States, nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters of the State or the United States, or on the high seas, nor while a student of any institution of learning, nor while kept in any poor house or other asylum at public expense nor while confined in public prison.

Election boards. Clerks. Vacancies. Privileges of election officers.
Section 14.

District election boards shall consist of a judge and two inspectors, who shall be chosen annually by the citizens. Each elector shall have the right to vote for the judge and one inspector, and each inspector shall appoint one clerk. The first election board for any new district shall be selected, and vacancies in election boards filled, as shall be provided by law. Election officers shall be privileged from arrest upon days of election, and while engaged in making up and transmitting returns, except upon warrant of a court of record or judge thereof, for an election fraud, for felony, or for wanton breach of the peace. In cities they may claim exemption from jury duty during their terms of service.

Government officers and employees disqualified to serve as election officers. Ineligibility of election officers.
Section 15.

No person shall be qualified to serve as an election officer who shall hold, or shall within two months have held any office, appointment or employment in or under the government of the United States or of this State, or of any city, or county, or of any other municipal board, commission or trust in any city, save only justices of the peace and aldermen, notaries public and persons in the militia service of the State; nor shall any election officer be eligible to any civil office to be filled at an election at which he shall serve, save only to such subordinate municipal or local offices, below the grade of city or county offices, as shall be designated by general law.

Courts of common pleas may appoint overseers of elections. Overseers may decide questions of difference.
Section 16.

The courts of common pleas of the several counties of the Commonwealth shall have power within their respective jurisdictions, to appoint overseers of election to supervise the proceedings of election officers and to make report to the court as may be required; such appointments to be made for any district in a city or county upon petition of five citizens, lawful voters of such election district, setting forth that such appointment is a reasonable precaution to secure the purity and fairness of elections; overseers shall be two in number for an election district, shall be residents therein, and shall be persons qualified to serve upon election boards, and in each case members of different political parties; whenever the members of an election shall differ in opinion the overseers, if they agree thereon, shall decide the question of difference; in appointing overseers of election all the law judges of the proper court, able to act at the time, shall concur in the appointment made.

Trial of contested elections.
Section 17.

The trial and determination of contested elections of electors of President and Vice-President, members of the General Assembly, and of all public officers, whether State, judicial, municipal or local, shall be by the courts of law, or by one or more of the law judges thereof; the General Assembly shall, by general law, designate the courts and judges by whom the several classes of election contests shall be tried, and regulate the manner of trial and all matters incident thereto; but no such law assigning jurisdiction, or regulating its exercise, shall apply to any contest arising out of an election held before its passage.

ARTICLE IX

TAXATION AND FINANCE

Taxes to be uniform. Exemptions.
Section 1.

All taxes shall be uniform, upon the same class of subjects, within the territorial limits of the authority levying the tax, and shall be levied and collected under general laws.

Limitations of power to exempt.
Section 2.

All laws exempting property from taxation, other than the property above enumerated, shall be void.

Power to tax corporations not to be surrendered.
Section 3.

The power to tax corporations and corporate property shall not be surrendered or suspended by any contract or grant to which the State shall be a party.

Power to make debts.
Section 4.

No debt shall be created by or on behalf of the State, except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue, repel invasions, suppress insurrection, defend the State in war, or to pay existing debt; and the debt created to supply deficiencies in revenue shall never exceed, in the aggregate at any one time, one million of dollars.

Moneys borrowed to be used for purpose specified.
Section 5.

All laws, authorizing the borrowing of money by and on behalf of the State, shall specify the purpose for which the money is to be used, and the money so borrowed shall be used for the purpose specified and no other.

State credit not to be loaned, &c.
Section 6.

The credit of the Commonwealth shall not be pledged or loaned to any individual, company, corporation or association, nor shall the Commonwealth become a joint owner or stockholder in any company, association or corporation.

Municipalities not to become stockholders, etc.
Section 7.

The General Assembly shall not authorize any county, city, borough, township or incorporated district to become a stockholder in any company, association or corporation, or to obtain or appropriate money for, or to loan its credit to, any corporation, association, institution or individual.

Municipal debts limited.
Section 8.

The debt of any municipality, city, borough, township, school district or other municipality or incorporated district, except as herein provided, shall never exceed seven per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such municipality or district incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the assent of the electors thereof at a public election, in such manner as shall be provided by law; but any city, the debt of which now exceeds seven per centum of such assessed valuation, may be authorized by law to increase the same three per centum, in the aggregate at any one time, upon such valuation.

No assumption of municipal debts by State.
Section 9.

The Commonwealth shall not assume the debt, or any part thereof, of any city, county, borough or township, unless such debt shall have been contracted to enable the State to repel invasion, suppress domestic insurrection, defend in time of war, or to assist the State in the discharge of any portion of its present indebtedness.

Re-payment of municipal debts by the State.
Section 10.

Any county, township, school district or other municipality incurring any indebtedness shall, at or before the time of so doing, provide for the collection of an annual tax sufficient to pay the interest and also the principle thereof within thirty years.

Sinking fund.
Section 11.

To provide for the payment of the present State debt, and any additional debt contracted as aforesaid, the General Assembly shall continue and maintain the sinking fund, sufficient to pay the accruing interest on such debt, and annually to reduce the principal thereof by a sum of not less than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; the said sinking fund shall consist of the proceeds of the sale of the public works or any part thereof, and of the income or proceeds of the sale of any stocks owned by the Commonwealth, together with other funds and resources that may be delegated by law, and shall be increased from time to time by assigning to it any part of the taxes or other revenues of the State not required for the ordinary and current expenses of government and unless in case of war, invasion or insurrection, no part of the said sinking fund shall be used or applied otherwise than in the extinguishment of the public debt.

Section 12.

The moneys of the State, over and above the necessary reserve, shall be used in the payment of the debt of the State either directly or through the sinking fund, and the moneys of the sinking fund shall never be invested in or loaned upon the security of anything, except the bonds of the United States or of this State.

Reserve to the treasury.
Section 13.

The moneys held as necessary reserve shall be limited by law to the amount required for current expenses, and shall be secured and kept as may be provided by law. Monthly statements shall be published showing the amount of such moneys, where the same are deposited, and how secured.

Reserve not to be converted to private use.
Section 14.

The making of profit out of the public moneys or making the same for any purpose not authorized by law by any officer of the State, or member or officer of the General Assembly, shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punished as may be provided by law, but part of such punishment shall be disqualification to hold office for a period of not less than five years.

Section 15.

Added by Amendment November 4, 1913.

Section 16.

Added by Amendment of November 7, 1933.

Section 17.

Added by Amendment of November 7, 1933.

Section 18.

Added by Amendment of November 6, 1945.

Section 19.

Added by Amendment of November 7, 1933.

Section 21

Added by Amendment of November 6, 1945.

Section 22.

Added by Amendment of November 8, 1949.

Section 23.

Added by Amendment of November 5, 1957.

Section 24.

Added by Amendment of November 5, 1963.

ARTICLE X

EDUCATION

Public schools to be maintained. Amount appropriated.
Section 1
.

The General Assembly shall provide for the maintenance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public schools, wherein all the children of this Commonwealth above the age of six years may be educated, and shall appropriate at least one million dollars each year for that purpose.

No appropriation to sectarian schools.
Section 2.

No money raised for the support of the public schools of the Commonwealth shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian school.

Women eligible to school offices.
Section 3.

Women twenty-one years of age and upwards, shall be eligible to any office of control or management under the school laws of this State.

ARTICLE XI

MILITIA

Organization of militia. Exemption authorized.
Section 1.

The freemen of this Commonwealth shall be armed, organized and disciplined for its defence when and in such manner as may be directed by law. The General Assembly shall provide for maintaining the militia by appropriations from the Treasury of the Commonwealth, and may exempt from military service persons having conscientious scruples against bearing arms.

Amendment of May 16, 1967. (See Article III, Section 16)

ARTICLE XII

PUBLIC OFFICERS

Selection of public officers.
Section 1.

All officers, whose selection is not provided for in this Constitution, shall be elected or appointed as may be directed by law.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Federal officers disqualified for state offices.
Section 2.

No member of Congress from the State, nor any person holding or exercising any office or appointment of trust or profit under the United States, shall at the same time hold or exercise any office in this State to which a salary, fees or perquisites shall be attached. The General Assembly may by law declare what offices are incompatible.

Dueling disqualification for office.
Section 3.

Any person who shall fight a duel or send a challenge for that purpose, or be an aider or abettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any office of honor or profit in this State, and may be otherwise punished as shall be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE XIII

NEW COUNTIES

Limitation of power to create counties.
Section 1.

No new county shall be established which shall reduce any county to less than four hundred square miles, or to less than twenty thousand inhabitants; nor shall any county be formed of less area, or containing a less population; nor shall any line thereof pass within ten miles of the new county seat of any county proposed to be divided.

ARTICLE XIV

COUNTY OFFICERS

County officers.
Section 1.

County officers shall consist of sheriffs, coroners, prothonotaries, register of wills, recorders of deeds, commissioners, treasurers, surveyors, auditors or controllers, clerks of the courts, district attorneys and such others as may be from time to time be established by law; and no sheriff or treasurer shall be eligible for the term next succeeding the one for which he may be elected.

Amendment of November 6, 1945

Election and tenure. Vacancies.
Section 2.

County officers shall be elected at the general elections and shall hold their offices for the term of three years, beginning on the first Monday of January next after their election, and until their successors shall be duly qualified; all vacancies not otherwise provided for, shall be filled in such manner as may be provided by law.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Residence of county officers.
Section 3.

No person shall be appointed to any office within any county who shall not have been a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next before his appointment, if the county shall have been so long erected, but if it shall not have been so long erected, then within the limits of the county or counties out of which it shall have been taken.

Offices to be kept to county town.
Section 4.

Prothonotaries, clerks of the courts, recorders of deeds, register of wills, county surveyors and sheriffs, shall keep their offices in the county town of the county in which they respectively shall be officers.

Compensation.
Section 5.

The compensation of county officers shall be regulated by law, and all county officers who are or who may be salaried shall pay all fees which they may be authorized to receive, into the treasury of the county or State, as may be directed by law. In counties containing over one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants all county officers shall be paid by salary, and the salary of any such officer and his clerks, heretofore paid by fees, shall not exceed the aggregate amount of fees earned during his term and collected by and for him.

Accountability of municipal officers.
Section 6.

The General Assembly shall provide by law for the strict accountability of all county, township and borough officers, as well for the fees which may be collected by them, as for all public or municipal moneys which may be paid to them.

County commissioners and auditors to be chosen by limited vote. Vacancies--how filled.
Section 7.

Three county commissioners and three county auditors shall be elected in each county where such officers are chosen, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five and every third year thereafter; and in the election of said officers each qualified elector shall vote for no more than two persons, and the three persons having the highest number of votes shall be elected; any casual vacancy in the office of county commissioner or county auditor shall be filled by the court of common pleas of the county in which such vacancy shall occur, by the appointment of an elector of the proper county who shall have voted for the commissioner or auditor whose place is to be filled.

Amendment of November 2, 1909

Amendment of November 6, 1951

ARTICLE XV

CITIES AND CITY CHARTERS

General laws to establish cities.
Section 1.

Cities may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors of any town or borough having a population of at least ten thousand shall vote at any general election in favor of the same.

Amendment of November 7, 1922

Municipal commissions not to incur debts except on appropriations.
Section 2.

No debt shall be contracted or liability incurred by any municipal commission, except in pursuance of an appropriation previously made therefor by the municipal government.

Sinking funds in cities.
Section 3.

Every city shall create a sinking fund, which shall be inviolably pledged for the payment of its funded debt.

Section 4.

Added by Amendment of November 6, 1928

Section 5.

Added by Amendment of November 7, 1933

ARTICLE XVI

PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

Unused charters to be void.
Section 1.

All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

No charter to be validated or amended except on condition.
Section 2.

The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass any other general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

Right of eminent domain not be abridged or police power to be limited.
Section 3.

The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be abridged or so construed as to prevent the General Assembly from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies, and subjecting them to public use, the same as the property of individuals; and the exercise of the police power of the State shall never be abridged or so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their business in such manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals or the general well-being of the State.

Cumulative voting in stockholder elections.
Section 4.

In all elections for directors or managers of a corporation each member or shareholder may cast the whole number of his votes for one candidate, or distribute them upon two or more candidates, as he may prefer.Foreign corporations to have places of business in State.

Section 5.

No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State without having one or more known places of business and an authorized agent or agents in the same upon whom process may be served.

Corporations not to engage in business unauthorized by their charters.
Section 6.

No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter, nor shall it take or hold any real estate except such as may be necessary and proper for its legitimate business.

The fictitious increase of stocks or bonds forbidden.
Section 7.

No corporations shall issue stocks or bonds except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock, first obtained at a meeting to be held after sixty days notice given in pursuance of law.

Amendment of November 6, 1956

The taking and injury of private property to be compensated. Appeals from assessment of damages.
Section 8.

Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with the privilege of taking private property for public use shall make just compensation for property taken, injured or destroyed by the construction or enlargement of their works, highways or improvements, which compensation shall be paid or secured before such taking, injury or destruction. The General Assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person of an appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations or individuals made by viewers or otherwise; and the amount of such damages in all cases of appeal shall on demand of either party be determined by a jury according to the course of the common law.

Bank notes or bills to be secure.
Section 9.

Every banking law shall provide for the registry and countersigning, by an officer of the State, of all notes or bills designed for circulation, and that ample security to the full amount thereof shall be deposited with the Auditor General for the redemption of such notes or bills.

Repeal of charter authorized. No law to create, &c., more than one charter.
Section 10.

The General Assembly shall have the power to alter, revoke or annul any charter of incorporation now existing and revocable at the adoption of this Constitution, or any that may hereafter be created, whenever in their opinion it may be injurious to the citizens of this Commonwealth, in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the corporators. No law hereafter enacted shall create, renew or extend the charter of more than one corporation.

Notice of bills to create banks. Bank charters limited to twenty years.
Section 11.

No corporate body to possess banking and discounting privileges shall be created or organized in pursuance of any law without three months' previous public notice, at the place of the intended location, of the intention to apply for such privileges, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, nor shall a charter for such privilege be granted for a longer period than twenty years.

Amendment of November 2, 1920

Section 12.

Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this State, and to connect the same with other lines, and the General Assembly shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide reasonable regulations to give full effect to this section. No telegraph company shall consolidate with, or hold a controlling interest in the stock or bonds of, any other telegraph company owning a competing line, or acquire, by purchase or otherwise, any other competing line of telegraph.

The word "corporation" defined.
Section 13.

The term "corporations," as used in this article, shall be construed to include all joint stock companies or associations having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

ARTICLE XVII

RAILROADS AND CANALS

Railroads and canals, public highways. May be constructed. Shall have connections and use of connecting roads.

Section 1. All railroads and canals shall be public highways, and all railroad and canal companies shall be common carriers. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between any points within this State, and to connect at the State line with railroads of other States. Every railroad company shall have the right with its road to intersect, connect with or cross any other railroad; and shall receive and transport each other's passengers, tonnage and cars loaded or empty, without delay or discrimination.

Railroad and canal companies to keep offices in the State.
Section 2.

Every railroad and canal corporation organized in this State shall maintain an office therein where transfers of its stock shall be made, and where its books shall be kept for inspection by any stockholder or creditor of such corporation, in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stock subscribed or paid in, and by whom, the names of the owners of its stock and the amounts owned by them, respectively, the transfers of aid stock, and the names and places of residence of its officers.

Discrimination in charges for freight and passengers prohibited.
Section 3.

All individuals, associations and corporations shall have equal right to have persons and property transported over railroads and canals, and no undue or unreasonable discrimination shall be made in charges for, or in facilities for, transportation of freight or passengers within the State or coming from or going to any other State. Persons and property transported over any railroad shall be delivered at any station at charges not exceeding the charges for transportation of persons and property of the same class in the same direction to any more distant station; but excursion and commutation tickets may be issued at special rates.

Amendment of November 7, 1933

Consolidation with competing companies prohibited. Officers of companies not to be officers of competing companies.
Section 4.

No railroad, canal or other corporation, or the lessees, purchasers or managers of any railroad or canal corporation, shall consolidate the stock, property or franchises of such corporation with, or lease, or purchase the works or franchises of, or in any way control any other railroad or canal corporation owning or having under its control a parallel or competing line; nor shall any officer of such railroad or canal corporation act as an officer of any other railroad or canal corporation owning or having the control of a parallel or competing line; and the question whether railroads or canals are parallel or competing lines shall, when demanded by the party complainant, be decided by a jury as in other civil issues.

Common carrier corporations not to engage in mining, manufacturing, etc.
Section 5.

No incorporated company doing the business of a common carrier shall, directly or indirectly, prosecute or engage in mining or manufacturing articles for transportation over its works; nor shall such company, directly or indirectly, engage in any other business than that of common carriers, or hold or acquire lands, freehold or leasehold, directly or indirectly, except such as shall be necessary for carrying on its business; but any mining or manufacturing company may carry the products of its mines and manufactories on its railroad or canal not exceeding fifty miles in length.

Officers, etc., of companies not to engage in transportation business.
Section 6.

No president, director, officer, agent or employee of any railroad or canal company shall be interested, directly or indirectly, in the furnishing of material or supplies to such company, or in the business of transportation as a common carrier of freight or passengers over the works owned, leased, controlled or worked by such company.

No discrimination in charges to transporters.
Section 7.

No discrimination in charges or facilities for transportation shall be made between transportation companies and individuals, or in favor of either, by abatement, drawback or otherwise, and no railroad or canal company, or any lessee, manager or employee thereof, shall make any preferences in furnishing cars or motive power.

Free passes on railroads prohibited.
Section 8.

No railroad, railway or other transportation company shall grant free passes, or passes at a discount, to any person except officers or employees of the company.

Amendment of November 6, 1923

Passenger railroads not be constructed without consent of municipal authorities.
Section 9.

No street passenger railway shall be constructed within the limits of any city, borough or township, without the consent of its local authorities.

Acceptance of this article by corporations.
Section 10.

No railroad, canal or other transportation company, in existence at the time of the adoption of this article, shall have the benefit of any future legislation by general or special laws, except on condition of complete acceptance of all the provisions of this article.

Duties of Auditor General as to companies transferred to Secretary of Internal Affairs.
Section 11.

The existing powers and duties of the Auditor General in regard to railroads, canals and other transportation companies, except as to their accounts, are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Internal Affairs, who shall have a general supervision over them, subject to such regulations and alterations as shall be provided by law; and, in addition to the annual reports now required to be made, said Secretary may require special reports at any time upon any subject relating to the business of said companies from any officer or officers thereof.

Section 12.

The General Assembly shall enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XVIII

FUTURE AMENDMENTS

Amendments may be proposed by Legislature. Amendment not to be submitted oftener than once in five years.

Section 1.

Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives; and, if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each House, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and the Secretary of the Commonwealth shall cause the same to be published, three months before the next general election, in at least two newspapers in every county in which such newspapers shall be published; and if, in the General Assembly next afterwards chosen, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each House, the Secretary of the Commonwealth shall cause the same again to be published in the manner aforesaid; and such proposed amendment or amendments shall be submitted to the qualified electors of the State in such manner, and at such time at least three months after being so agreed to by the two Houses, as the General Assembly shall prescribe; and, if such amendment or amendments shall be approved by a majority of those voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Constitution; but no amendment or amendments shall be submitted oftener than once in five years. When two or more amendments shall be submitted they shall be voted upon separately.

SCHEDULES TO CONSTITUTION OF PENNSYLVANIA

Schedule of 1909

SCHEDULE NO. 1

(ADOPTED WITH THE CONSTITUTION)

That no inconvenience may arise from the changes in the Constitution of the Commonwealth, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared, that:

Section 1.

This Constitution shall take effect on the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, for all purposes not otherwise provided for therein.

Section 2.

All laws in force in this Commonwealth at the time of the adoption of this Constitution not inconsistent therewith, and all rights, actions, prosecutions and contracts shall continue as if this Constitution had not been adopted.

[Election of Senators]

Section 3.

At the General election in the years one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four and one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, Senators shall be elected in all districts where there shall be vacancies. Those elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four shall serve for two years, and those elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five shall serve for one year. Senators now elected and those whose terms are unexpired shall represent the districts in which they reside until the end of the terms for which they were elected.

Election of Senators (continued)
Section 4.

At the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, Senators shall be elected from even- numbered districts to serve for two years, and from odd-numbered districts to serve for four years.

Election of Governor
Section 5.

 The first election of Governor under this Constitution shall be at the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, when a Governor shall be elected for three years; and the term of the Governor elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight and of those thereafter elected shall be for four years, according to the provisions of this Constitution.

Election of Lieutenant Governor
Section 6.

At the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, a Lieutenant Governor shall be elected according to the provisions of this Constitution.

Secretary of Internal Affairs
Section 7.

The Secretary of Internal Affairs shall be elected at the first general election after the adoption of this Constitution; and, when the said officer shall be duly elected and qualified, the office of Surveyor General shall be abolished. The Surveyor General in office at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall continue in office until the expiration of the term for which he was elected.

Superintendent of Public Instruction
Section 8.

When the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be duly qualified the office of Superintendent of Common Schools shall cease.

Eligibility of Present Officers
Section 9.

Nothing contained in this Constitution shall be construed to render any person now holding any State office for a first official term ineligible for re-election at the end of such term.

Judges of Supreme Court
Section 10.

The judges of the Supreme Court in office when this Constitution shall take effect shall continue until their commissions severally expire. Two judges in addition to the number now composing the said court shall be elected at the first general election after the adoption of this Constitution.

Courts of Record
Section 11.

All courts of record and all existing courts which are not specified in this Constitution shall continue in existence until the first day of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, without abridgement of their present jurisdiction, but no longer. The court of the first criminal jurisdiction for the counties of Schuylkill, Lebanon and Dauphin is hereby abolished, and all causes and proceedings pending therein in the county of Schuylkill shall be tried and disposed of in the courts of oyer and terminer and quarter sessions of the peace of said county.

Register's Courts Abolished
Section 12.

The register's courts now in existence shall be abolished on the first day of January next succeeding the adoption of this Constitution.

Judicial Districts
Section 13.

The General Assembly shall, at the next session after the adoption of this Constitution, designate the several judicial districts as required by this Constitution. The judges in commission when such designation shall be made shall continue during their unexpired terms judges of the new districts in which they reside; but, when there shall be two judges residing in the same district, the president judge shall elect to which district he shall be assigned, and the additional law judge shall be assigned to the other district.

Decennial Adjustment of Judicial Districts
Section 14.

The General Assembly shall, at the next succeeding session after each decennial census and not oftener, designate the several judicial districts as required by this Constitution.

Judges in Commission
Section 15.

Judges learned in the law of any court of record holding commissions in force at the adoption of this Constitution shall hold their respective offices until the expiration of the terms for which they were commissioned, and until their successors shall be duly qualified. The Governor shall commission the president judge of the court of first criminal jurisdiction for the counties of Schuylkill, Lebanon and Dauphin as a judge of the court of common pleas of Schuylkill county, for the unexpired term of his office.

President Judges; Casting Lots; Associate Judges
Section 16.

After the expiration of the term of any president judge of any court of common pleas, in commission at the adoption of this Constitution, the judge of such court learned in the law and oldest in commission shall be the president judge thereof; and when two or more judges are elected at the same time in any judicial district they shall decide by lot which shall be president judge; but when the president judge of a court shall be re-elected he shall continue to be president judge of that court. Associate judges not learned in the law, elected after the adoption of this Constitution, shall be commissioned to hold their offices for the term of five years from the first day of January next after their election.

Compensation of Judges
Section 17.

The General Assembly, at the first session after the adoption of this Constitution, shall fix and determine the compensation of the judges of the Supreme Court and of the judges of the several judicial districts of the Commonwealth; and the provisions of the fifteenth section of the article on Legislation shall not be deemed inconsistent herewith. Nothing contained in this Constitution shall be held to reduce the compensation now paid to any law judge of this Commonwealth now in commission.

Courts of Philadelphia and Allegheny Counties; Organization in Philadelphia
Section 18.

The courts of common pleas in the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny shall be composed of the present judges of the district court and court of common pleas of said counties until their offices shall severally end, and of such other judges as may from time to time be selected. For the purpose of first organization in Philadelphia the judges of the court number one shall be Judges Allison, Pierce and Paxson; of the court number two, Judges Hare, Mitchell and one other judge to be elected; of the court number three, Judges Ludlow, Finletter and Lynd; and of the court number four, Judges Thayer, Briggs and one other judge to be elected. The judge first named shall be the president judge of said courts respectively, and thereafter the president judge shall be the judge oldest in commission; but any president judge, re-elected in the same court or district, shall continue to be president judge thereof. The additional judges for courts numbers two and four shall be voted for and elected at the first general election after the adoption of this Constitution, in the same manner as the two additional judges of the Supreme Court, and they shall decide by lot to which court they shall belong. Their term of office shall commence on the first Monday of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five.

Organization of Courts in Allegheny County
Section 19.

In the county of Allegheny, for the purpose of first organization under this Constitution, the judge of the court of common pleas, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be the judges of the court number one, and the judges of the district court, at the same date, shall be the judges of the common pleas number two. The president judges of the common pleas and district court shall be president judge of said courts number one and two, respectively, until their offices shall end; and thereafter the judge oldest in commission shall be president judge; but any president judge re-elected in the same court, or district, shall continue to be president judge thereof.

When Re-Organization of Courts to Take Effect
Section 20.

The organization of the courts of common pleas under this Constitution for the counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny shall take effect on the first Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and existing courts in said counties shall continue with their present power and jurisdiction until that date, but no new suits shall be instituted in the courts of nisi prius after the adoption of this Constitution.

Causes Pending in Philadelphia; Transfer of Records
Section 21.

The causes and proceeding pending in the court of nisi prius, court of common pleas, and district court in Philadelphia shall be tried and disposed of in the court of common pleas. The records and dockets of said courts shall be transferred to the prothonotary's office of said county.

Causes Pending in Allegheny County
Section 22.

The causes and proceedings pending in the court of common pleas in the county of Allegheny shall be tried and disposed of in the court number one; and the causes and proceedings pending in the district court shall be tried and disposed of in the court number two.

Prothonotary of Philadelphia County
Section 23.

The prothonotary of the court of common pleas of Philadelphia shall be first appointed by the judges of said court on the first Monday of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and the present prothonotary of the district court in said county shall be the prothonotary of the said court of common pleas until said date when his commission shall expire, and the present clerk of the court of oyer and terminer and quarter sessions of the peace in Philadelphia shall be the clerk of such court until the expiration of his present commission on the first Monday of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five.

Aldermen
Section 24.

In cities containing over fifty thousand inhabitants, except Philadelphia, all aldermen in office at the time of adoption of this Constitution shall continue in office until the expiration of their commissions, and at the election for city and ward officers in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five one alderman shall be elected in each ward as provided in this Constitution.

Magistrates in Philadelphia
Section 25.

 In Philadelphia magistrates in lieu of alderman shall be chosen, as required in this Constitution, at the election in said city for city ward officers in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five; their term of office shall commence on the first Monday of April succeeding their election. The terms of office of aldermen in said city holding or entitled to commissions at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall not be affected thereby.

Term of Present Officers
Section 26.

All persons in office in this Commonwealth at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, and at the first election under it, shall hold their respective offices until the term for which they have been elected or appointed shall expire, and until their successors shall be duly qualified, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Oath of Office
Section 27.

The seventh article of this Constitution prescribing an oath of office shall take effect on and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five.

County Commissioners and Auditors
Section 28.

The terms of office of county commissioners and county auditors, chosen prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, which shall not have expired before the first Monday of January in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, shall expire on that day.

Compensation of Present Officers
Section 29.

All State, county, city, ward, borough and township officers in office at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, whose compensation is not provided for by salaries alone, shall continue to receive the compensation allowed them by law until the expiration of their respective terms of office.

Renewal of Oath of Office
Section 30.

All State and judicial officers heretofore elected, sworn, affirmed, or in office when this Constitution shall take effect, shall severally, within one month after such adoption, take and subscribe an oath, or affirmation to support this Constitution.

Enforcing Legislation
Section 31.

The General Assembly at its first session, or as soon as may be after the adoption of this Constitution, shall pass such laws as may be necessary to carry the same into full force and effect.

An Ordinance Declared Valid
Section 32.

The ordinance passed by this Convention, entitled "An ordinance for submitting the amended Constitution of Pennsylvania to vote of the electors thereof," shall be held to be valid for all the purposes thereof.

City Commissioners of Philadelphia
Section 33.

The words "county commissioners," wherever used in this Constitution and in any ordinance accompanying the same, shall be held to include the commissioners for the city of Philadelphia.

Adopted at Philadelphia, on the third day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three.

Filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, November 13, 1873.

M. S. Quay
Secretary of the Commonwealth
Jno. H. Walker, President.

SCHEDULE NO. 2

(AMENDMENTS OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909)

Adoption. The provisions of Schedule No. 2 were adopted November 2, 1909, P.L. 948, J.R.1. Partial Repeal of Schedule. See section 2 of Proposal No. 7 of 1968 in the appendix to the Constitution for provisions relating to the partial repeal of Schedule No. 2.

Adjustments of Terms of Public Officers to Amendments of 1909

Section 1.

That no inconvenience may arise from the changes in the Constitution of the Commonwealth, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared that--

In the came of officers elected by the people, all terms of office fixed by act of Assembly at an odd number of years shall each be lengthened one year, but the Legislature may change the length of the term, provided the terms for which such officers are elected shall always be for an even number of years.

The above extension of official terms shall not affect officers elected at the general election of one thousand nine hundred and eight; nor any city, ward, borough, township, or election division officers, whose terms of office, under existing law, end in the year one thousand nine hundred and ten.

In the year one thousand nine hundred and ten the municipal election shall be held on the third Tuesday of February as heretofore; but all officers chosen at that election to an office the regular term of which is two years, and also all election officers and assessors chosen at that election, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven. All officers chosen at that election to offices the term of which is now four years, or is make four years by the operation of these amendments or this schedule, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and thirteen. All justices of the peace, magistrates, and aldermen, chosen at that election, shall serve until the first Monday of December in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifteen. After the year nineteen hundred and ten, and until the Legislature shall otherwise provide, all terms of city, ward, borough, township, and election division officers shall begin on the first Monday of December in an odd-numbered year.

All city, ward, borough, and township officers holding office at the date of the approval of these amendments, whose terms of office may end in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of December of that year.

All judges of the courts for the several judicial districts, and also all county officers, holding office at the date of the approval of these amendments, whose terms of office may end in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of January, one thousand and hundred and twelve.

Amendment of November 2, 1915

The legislature failed to designate any article or section for this amendment.

Registering, Transferring, Insuring and Guaranteeing Land Titles.

Laws may be passed providing for a system of registering, transferring, insuring of and guaranteeing land titles by the State, or by the counties thereof, and for settling and determining adverse or other claims to and interest in lands the titles to which are so registered, transferred, insured, and guaranteed; and for the creation and collection of indemnity funds; and for carrying the system and powers hereby provided for into effect by such existing courts as may be designated by the Legislature, and by the establishment of such new courts as may be deemed necessary. In matters arising in and under the operation of such system, judicial powers, with right of appeal, may be conferred by the Legislature upon county recorders and upon other officers as designated. Such laws may provide for continuing the registering, transferring, insuring, and guaranteeing such titles after the first or original registration has been perfected by the courts, and provision may be made for raising the necessary funds for expenses and salaries of officers, which shall be paid out of the treasury of the several counties.

Amendments

ARTICLE I. SECTION 15. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967

Special Criminal Tribunals Section 15. No commission shall issue creating special temporary criminal tribunals to try particular individuals or particular classes of cases. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws. 1035] 

ARTICLE I. SECTION 19. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16,1967

Attainder Limited
Section 19. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the Commonwealth. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1035] 

ARTICLE I. SECTION 25. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967

Reservation of Powers in People
Section 25. To guard against the transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government and shall forever remain inviolate. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1035] 

ARTICLE I. SECTION 26. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967

No Discrimination by Commonwealth and Its Political Subdivisions
Section 26.
Neither the Commonwealth nor any political subdivision thereof shall deny to any person the enjoyment of any civil right, nor discriminate against any person in the exercise of any civil right. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1035] 

ARTICLE II, SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 3, 1959 Sessions. Section 4. The General Assembly shall meet at twelve o'clock noon on the first Tuesday of January of the year following such adoption, and shall meet at such time annually thereafter, and at other times when convened by the Governor. At regular sessions convening in even-numbered years the General Assembly shall not enact any laws, except laws raising revenue and laws making appropriations. [Source: 1959 Pa. Laws 2158] 

ARTICLE II. SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Sessions Section 4. The General Assembly shall be a continuing body during the term for which its Representatives are elected. It shall meet at twelve o'clock noon on the first Tuesday of January each year. Special sessions shall be called by the Governor on petition of a majority of the members elected to each House or may be called by the Governor whenever in his opinion the public interest requires. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1036]

ARTICLE II. SECTION 6. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Disqualification to Hold Other Office. Section 6. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under this Commonwealth to which a salary, fee of perquisite is attached. No member of Congress or other person holding any office (except of attorney-at law or in the national guard or in a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States) under the United States of this Commonwealth to which a salary, fee or perquisite is attached shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1036]

ARTICLE III. SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Reference to Committee; Printing. Section 2. No bill shall be considered unless referred to a committee, printed for the use of the members and returned therefrom. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III. SECTION 3. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967. Form of Bills Section 3. No bill shall be passed containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title, except a general appropriation bill or a bill codifying or compiling the law or a part thereof.[Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III. SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967. Consideration of Bills Section 4. Every bill shall be considered on three different days in each House. All amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the members before the final vote is taken on the bill and before the final vote is taken, upon written request addressed to the presiding officer of either House by at least twenty-five percent of the members elected to that House, any bill shall be read at length in that House. No bill shall become a law, unless on its final passage the vote is taken by yeas and nays, the names of the persons voting for and against it are entered on the journal, and a majority of the members elected to each House is recorded thereon as voting in its favor. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 32, Certain Special and Local Laws. The General Assembly shall pass no local or special law in any case which has been or can be provided for by general law and specifically the General assembly shall not pass any local or special law. 1. Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs, or school districts: 2. Vacating roads, town plats, streets or alleys: 3. Locating or changing county seats, erecting new counties or changing county lines: 4. Erecting new townships or boroughs, changing township lines, borough limits or school districts: 5. Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into the treasury: 6. Exempting property from taxation: 7. Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing: 8. Creating corporations, or amending, renewing or extending the charters thereof: Nor shall the General Assembly indirectly enact any special or local law by the partial repeal of a general law; but laws repealing local or special acts may be passed. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 7. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 9. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 8. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 10. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 17. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 8, 1955 Extra Compensation Prohibited. Section 11. No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, employe, agent or contractor, after services shall have been rendered or contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim against the Commonwealth, without previous authority of law. [Source: 1955 Pa. Laws 2055] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 26. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 12. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 13. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 27. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 14. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 10. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III. SECTION 15. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as Section 11. Appropriations. Appropriations. Section 11. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the executive,legislative and judicial departments of the Commonwealth, for the public debt and for public schools. All other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 16. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1961 Paying Out Public Moneys. Section 16. No money shall be paid out of the treasury, except on appropriations made by law and on warrant issued by the proper officer; but cash refunds of taxes, licenses, fees and other charges paid or collected, but not legally due, may be paid, as provided by law, without appropriation from the fund into which they were paid, on warrant of the proper officer. [Source: 1961 Pa. Laws 1783] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 16. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 24. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 17. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 30. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 18. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Certain Appropriations Forbidden. Section 18. No appropriations, except for pensions or gratuities for military services and to blind persons twenty-one years of age and upwards, shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes, to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation or association. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1557]

ARTICLE III, SECTION 18. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1937 Certain Appropriations Forbidden. Section 18. No appropriation shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes to any person or community nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation or association: Provided, That appropriations may be made for pensions or gratuities for military services, and to blind persons twenty-one years of age and upwards, and for assistance to mothers having dependent children, and to aged persons without adequate means of support. [Source: 1937 Pa. Laws 2875] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 18. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1963 Certain Appropriations Forbidden. Section 18. No appropriation shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes to any person or community nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation or association: Provided, That appropriations may be made for pensions or gratuities for military service and to blind persons twenty-one years of age and upwards, and for assistance to mothers having dependent children and to aged persons without adequate means of support, and in the form of scholarship grants or loans for higher educational purposes to residents of the Commonwealth enrolled in institutions of higher learning, except that no scholarship, grants or loans for higher educational purposes shall be given to persons enrolled in a theological seminary or school of theology. [Source: 1963 Pa. Laws 1401] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 18. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 29. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 19. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Appropriations for Support of Widows and Orphans of Persons Who Served in the Armed Forces Section 19. The General Assembly may make appropriations of money to institutions wherein the widows of persons who served in the armed forces are supported or assisted, or the orphans of persons who served in the armed forces are maintained and educated; but such appropriations shall be applied exclusively to the support of such widows and orphans. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 20. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 31. Delegation of Certain Powers Prohibited. Section 31. The General Assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any municipal function whatever. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 21. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1915 Employers Liability. Workmen's Compensation. Damages for Injuries to Person or Property. Section 21. The General Assembly may enact laws requiring the payment by employers, or employers and employes jointly, of reasonable compensation for injuries to employes arising in the course of their employment, and for occupational diseases of employes, whether or not such injuries or diseases result in death, and regardless of fault of employer or employe, and fixing the basis of ascertainment of such compensation and the maximum and minimum limits thereof, and providing special or general remedies for the collection thereof; but in no other cases shall the General Assembly limit the amount to be recovered for injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to persons or property, and in case of death from such injuries, the right of action shall survive, and the General Assembly shall prescribe for whose benefit such actions shall be prosecuted. No act shall prescribe any limitations of time within which suits may be brought against corporations for injuries to persons or property, or for other causes, different from those fixed by general laws regulating actions against natural persons, and such acts now existing are avoided. [Source: 1915 Pa. Laws 1103] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 21. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 18. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 22. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Investment of Trust Funds. Section 22. The General Assembly may, from time to time, by law, prescribe the nature and kind of investments for trust funds to be made to executors, administrators, trustees, guardians and other fiduciaries. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1558] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 22. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 22. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Section 22. State Purchases. The General Assembly shall maintain by law a system of competitive bidding under which all purchases of materials, printing, supplies or other personal property used by the government of this Commonwealth shall so far as practicable be made. The law shall provide that no officer or employee of the Commonwealth shall be in any way interested in any purchase made by the Commonwealth under contract or otherwise. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 24. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 25. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 12. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 26. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 9. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 27. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 28. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Section 28. Change of Permanent Location of State Capital. No law changing the permanent location of the Capital of the State shall be valid until the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the Commonwealth at a general election and ratified and approved by them. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 29. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 30. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 31. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 31. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7,1967 Delegation of Certain Powers Prohibited. Section 31. The General Assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any municipal function whatever. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitation or any other provision of the Constitution, the General Assembly may enact laws which provide that the findings of panels or commissions, selected and acting in accordance with law for the adjustment or settlement of grievances or disputes or for collective bargaining between policemen and firemen and their public employers shall be binding upon all parties and shall constitute a mandate to the head of the political subdivision which is the employer or to the appropriate officer of the Commonwealth if the Commonwealth is the employer, with respect to matters which can be remedied by administrative action, and to the lawmaking body of such political subdivision or of the Commonwealth, with respect to matters which require legislative action, to take the action necessary to carry out such findings. [Source: ] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 32. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 33. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 13. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 34. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1923 Classification of Counties, Cities, Boroughs, School Districts and Townships. Section 34. The Legislature shall have power to classify counties, cities, boroughs, school districts and townships according to population, and all laws passed relating to each class, and all laws passed relating to, and regulating procedure and proceedings in court with reference to, any class, shall be deemed general legislation within the meaning of this Constitution; but counties shall not be divided into more than eight classes, cities into not more than seven classes, school districts into not more than five classes, and boroughs into not more than three classes. [Source: 1923 Pa. Laws 1119] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 34. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III. Section 20. Classification of Municipalities. Section 20. The Legislature shall have power to classify counties, cities, boroughs, school districts, and townships according to population, and all laws passed relating to each class, and all laws passed relating to, and regulating procedure and proceedings in court with reference to, any class, shall be deemed general legislation within the meaning of this Constitution. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 35. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1963 Emergency Government in Case of Attack Section 35. (a) The General Assembly may provide, by law, during any session, for the continuity of the executive, legislative and judicial functions of the government of the Commonwealth, and its political subdivisions, and the establishment of emergency seats thereof. Such legislation shall become effective in the event of an attack by an enemy of the United States. (b) No law shall be held to be invalid for the sole reason that it was enacted prior to the effective date of this amendment. [Source: 1963 Pa. Laws 1401]

ARTICLE III, SECTION 35. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967. Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 25. Section 25. Emergency Seats of Government. The General Assembly may provide, by law, during any session, for the continuity of the executive, legislative, and judicial functions of the government of the Commonwealth, and its political subdivisions, and the establishment of emergency seats thereof and any such laws heretofore enacted are validated. Such legislation shall become effective in the event of an attack by an enemy of the United States. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Executive Department Section 1. The Executive Department of this Commonwealth shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Auditor General, State Treasurer, and Superintendent of Public Instruction and such other officers as the General Assembly may from time to time prescribe. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044]

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 3. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Terms of Office of Governor; Number of Terms Section 3. The Governor shall hold his office during four years from the third Tuesday of January new ensuing his election. Except for the Governor who may be in office when this amendment is adopted, he shall be eligible to succeed himself for one additional term. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044]

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Lieutenant Governor Section 4. A Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen jointly with the Governor by the casting by each voter of a single vote applicable to both offices, for the same term, and subject to the same provisions as the Governor; he shall be President of the Senate. As such, he may vote in case of a tie on any question except the final passage of a bill or joint resolution, the adoption of a conference report or the concurrence in amendments made by the House of Representatives. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 5. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Qualifications of Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General Section 5. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor, Lieutenant Governor or Attorney General except a citizen of the United States, who shall have attained the age of thirty years, and have been seven years next preceding his election an inhabitant of this Commonwealth, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or of this Commonwealth. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 6. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Disqualification for Offices of Governor and Lieutenant Governor. Section 6. No member of Congress or person holding any office (except of attorney-at-law or in the National Guard or in a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States) under the United States or this Commonwealth shall exercise the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Military Power. Section 7. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the military forces of the Commonwealth, except when they shall be called into actual service of the United States. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 Appointing Power of Governor. Vacancies. Confirmation by Senate. Section 8. He shall nominate and, by and with the consent of two-thirds of all the members of the Senate, appoint a Secretary of the Commonwealth and an Attorney General during pleasure, a Superintendent of Public Instruction for four years, and such other officers of the Commonwealth as he is or may be authorized by the Constitution or by law to appoint; he shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen, in offices to which he may appoint, during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session; he shall have power to fill any vacancy that may happen, during the recess of the Senate, in the office of Auditor General, State Treasurer, Secretary of Internal Affairs or Superintendent of Public Instruction, in a judicial office, or in any other elective office which he is or may be authorized to fill; if the vacancy shall happen during the session of the Senate, the Governor shall nominate to the Senate, before their final adjournment, a proper person to fill said vacancy; but in any such case of vacancy, in an elective office a person shall be chosen to said office on the next election day appropriate to such office according to the provisions of this Constitution, unless the vacancy shall happen within two calendar months immediately preceding such election day, in which case the election for said office shall be held on the second succeeding election day appropriate to such office. In acting on executive nominations the Senate shall sit with open doors, and, in confirming or rejecting the nominations of the Governor, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays and shall be entered on the journal. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Appointing Power Section 8. (a) The Governor shall appoint an Attorney General, a Superintendent of Public Instruction and such other officers as may be specified by law, shall be subject to the consent of two-thirds of the members elected to the Senate. (b) Except as may nor or hereafter be otherwise provided in this Constitution as to appellate and other judges, he may, during the recess of the Senate, fill vacancies happening in offices in which he appoints by granting commissions expiring at the end of its session and fill offices in the office of the Auditor General or State Treasurer or in any other elective office he is authorized to fill. If the vacancy happens during the session of the Senate except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, he shall nominate to the Senate, before its final adjournment, a proper person to fill the vacancy. In the case of an elective office, a person shall be elected to the office on the next election day appropriate to the office unless the vacancy happens within two calendar months immediately preceding the election day in which case the election shall be held on the second succeeding election day appropriate to the office. (c) In acting on executive nominations, the Senate shall sit with open doors. The votes shall be taken by yeas and nays and shall be entered on the journal. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 9. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Pardoning Power; Board of Pardons Section 9. (a) In all criminal cases except impeachment, the Governor shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, to grant reprieves, commutation of sentences and pardons; but no pardon shall be granted, nor sentence commuted, except on the recommendation in writing of a majority of the Board of Pardons, after full hearing in open session, upon due public notice. The recommendation, with the reasons therefor at length, shall be delivered to the Governor and a copy thereof shall be kept on file in the office of the Lieutenant Governor in a docket kept for that purpose. (b) The Board of Pardons shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor who shall be chairman, the Attorney General and three members appointed by the Governor with the consent of two-thirds of the members elected to the Senate, one for two years, one for four years, and one for six years, and thereafter for full terms of six years. The three members appointed by the Governor shall be residents of Pennsylvania and shall be recognized leaders in their fields; one shall be a member of the bar, one a penologist, and the third a doctor of medicine, psychiatrist or psychologist. The board shall keep records of its actions, which shall at all times be open for public inspection [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044]

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 10. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Information from Department Officials. Section 10. The Governor may require information in writing from the officers of the Executive Department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices. 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 13. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 When Lieutenant Governor to Act as Governor. Section 13. In the case of the death, conviction on impeachment, failure to qualify or resignation of the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor shall become Governor for the remainder of the term and in the case of the disability of the Governor, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor until the disability is removed. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 14. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Vacancy in Office of Lieutenant Governor. Section 14. In case of the death, conviction on impeachment, failure to qualify or resignation of the Lieutenant Governor, or in case he should become Governor under the preceding section, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate shall become Lieutenant Governor for the remainder of the term. In case of the disability of the Lieutenant Governor, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the President Pro Tempore of the Senate until the disability is removed. Should there be no Lieutenant Governor, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate shall become Governor if a vacancy shall occur in the office of Governor and in case of the disability of the Governor, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the President Pro Tempore of the Senate until the disability is removed. His seat as Senator shall become vacant whenever he shall become Governor and shall be filled by election as any other vacancy in Senate. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 18. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 18. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Terms of Office of Auditor General and State Treasurer; Number of Terms; Eligibility of State Treasurer to become Auditor General Section 18. The terms of the Auditor General and of the State Treasurer shall each be four years from the third Tuesday of January next ensuing his election. They shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the Commonwealth at general elections but shall not be eligible to serve continuously for more than two successive terms. The State Treasurer shall not be eligible to the office of Auditor General until fours years after he has been State Treasurer. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044]

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 19. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 20. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 21. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 9, 1909 Term of Executive Department Officers. Ineligibility to Re-election. Section 21. The terms of the Secretary of Internal Affairs, the Auditor General, and the State Treasurer shall each be four years; and they shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the State at general elections; but a State Treasurer, elected in the year one thousand nine hundred and nine, shall serve for three years, and his successors shall be elected at the general election in the year one thousand nine hundred and twelve, and in every fourth year thereafter. No person elected to the office of Auditor General or State Treasurer shall be capable of holding the same office for two consecutive terms. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 21. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1961 Terms of Office of Secretary of Internal Affairs, Auditor General and State Treasurer. Section 21. The terms of the Secretary of Internal Affairs, the Auditor General, and the State Treasurer, shall each be four years. The term of the Secretary of Internal Affairs shall be from the third Tuesday of January next following his election. They shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the State at general elections. No person elected to the office of Auditor General or State Treasurer shall be capable of holding the same office for two consecutive terms. [Source: 1961 Pa. Laws 1784] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 21. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV, SECTION 22. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE IV, Section 19. State Seal; Commission. Section 19. The present Great Seal of Pennsylvania shall be the seal of the State. All commissions shall be in the name and by authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and be sealed with the State seal and signed by the Governor. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044] 

ARTICLE IV. SCHEDULE OF MAY 16, 1967 That no inconvenience may arise from changes in article IV of the Constitution of the Commonwealth, it is hereby declared that the State Treasurer and Auditor General first elected after this amended article becomes effective shall serve terms beginning the first Tuesday in May next following their election and expiring four years from the first Tuesday in January next ensuing their election. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1044]

ARTICLE V, SECTION 6. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1911. Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia and Allegheny County. In the county of Philadelphia all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in the district courts and courts of common pleas, subject to such changes as may be made by this Constitution or by law, shall be in Philadelphia vested in five distinct and separate courts of equal and co-ordinate jurisdiction, composed of three judges each. The said courts in Philadelphia shall be designated respectively as the court of common pleas number one, number two, number three, number four, and number five, but the number of said courts may be by law increased, from time to time, and shall be in like manner designated by consecutive numbers. The number of judges in any of said courts, or in any county where the establishment of an additional court may be authorized by law, may be increased, from time to time, and whenever such increase shall amount in the whole to three, such three judges shall compose a distinct and separate court as aforesaid, which shall be numbered as aforesaid. In Philadelphia all suits shall be instituted in the said courts of common pleas without designating the number of the said court, and the several courts shall distribute and apportion the business among them in such manner as shall be provided by rules of court, and each court, to which any suit shall be thus assigned, shall have exclusive jurisdiction thereof, subject to change of venue, as shall be provided by law. In the county of Allegheny all the jurisdiction and powers now vested in the several numbered courts of common pleas shall be vested in one court of common pleas, composed of all the judges in commission in said courts. Such jurisdiction and power shall extend to all proceedings at law and in equity which shall have been instituted in the several numbered courts, and shall be subject to such changes as may be made by law, and subject to change of venue as provided by law. The president judge of said court shall be selected as provided by law. The number of judges in said court may be by law increased from time to time. This amendment shall take effect on the first day of January succeeding its adoption. [Source: 1911 Pa. Laws 1161] 

ARTICLE V, SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909. Justices of the Peace. Aldermen. Term. Residence. Section 11. Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, justices of the peace or aldermen shall be elected in the several wards, districts, boroughs or townships, by the qualified electors thereof, at the municipal election, in such manner as shall be directed by law, and shall be commissioned by the Governor for a term of six years. No township, ward, district or borough shall elect more than two justices of the peace or aldermen without the consent of a majority of the qualified electors within such township, ward or borough; no person shall be elected to such office unless he shall have resided within the township, borough, ward or district for one year next preceding his election. In cities containing over fifty thousand inhabitants, not more than one alderman shall be elected in each ward or district. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE V, SECTION 12. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 Magistrates' Courts in Philadelphia. Election. Term. Salaries. Jurisdiction. Section 12. In Philadelphia there shall be established, for each thirty thousand inhabitants, one court, not of record, of police and civil causes, with jurisdiction not exceeding one hundred dollars; such courts shall be held by magistrates whose term of office shall be six years, and they shall be elected on general ticket at the municipal election, by the qualified voters at large; and in the election of the said magistrates no voter shall vote for more than two-thirds of the number of persons to be elected when more than one are to be chosen; they shall be compensated only by fixed salaries to be paid by said county; and shall exercise such jurisdiction, civil and criminal, except as herein provided, as is now exercised by aldermen, subject to such changes, not involving an increase of civil jurisdiction or conferring political duties, as may be made by law. In Philadelphia the office of alderman is abolished. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1901 Qualifications of Electors Section 1. Every male citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections, subject however to such laws requiring and regulating the registration of electors as the General Assembly may enact: 1. He shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month. 2. He shall have resided in the State one year (or, having previously been a qualified elector or native born citizen of the State, he shall have removed therefrom and returned, then six months) immediately preceding the election. 3. He shall have resided in the election district where he shall offer to vote at least two months immediately preceding the election. 4. If twenty-two years of age and upwards, he shall have paid within two years a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least two months and paid at least one month before the election. [Source: 1901 Pa. Laws 881] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Qualifications of Electors Section 1. Every citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections, subject, however, to such laws requiring and regulating the registration of electors as the General Assembly may enact. 1. He or she shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month. 2. He or she shall have resided in the State one year (or, having previously been a qualified elector or native born citizen of the State, he or she shall have removed therefrom and returned, then six months) immediately preceding the election. 3. He or she shall have resided in the election district where he or she shall offer to vote at least two months immediately preceding the election. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1559] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 3, 1959 Qualifications of Electors Section 1. Every citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections subject, however, to such laws requiring and regulating the registration of electors as the General Assembly may enact. 1. He or she shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month. 2. He or she shall have resided in the State one year (or, having previously been a qualified elector or native born citizen of the State, he or she shall have removed therefrom and returned, then six months) immediately preceding the election. 3. He or she shall have resided in the election district where he or she shall offer to vote at least sixty days immediately preceding the election, except that if qualified to vote in an election district prior to removal of residence, he or she may, if a resident of Pennsylvania, vote in the election district from which he or she removed his or her residence within sixty days preceding the election. [Source: 1959 Pa. Laws 2160] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Qualifications of Electors. Section 1. Every citizen 21 years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections subject, however, to such laws requiring and regulating the registration of electors as the General Assembly may enact. 1. He or she shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month. 2. He or she shall have resided in the State ninety (90) days immediately preceding the election. 3. He or she shall have resided in the election district where he or she shall offer to vote at least sixty (60) days immediately preceding the election, except that if qualified to vote in an election district prior to removal of residence, he or she may, if a resident of Pennsylvania, vote in the election district from which he or she removed his or her residence within sixty (60) days preceding the election. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048]

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 General Elections. Section 2. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each even- numbered year, but the General Assembly may be law fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each House consenting thereto: Provided, That such election shall always be held in an even-numbered year. [Source 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 General Election Day. Section 2. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each even-numbered year, but the General Assembly may by law fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each House consenting thereto: Provided, that such election shall always be held in an even-numbered year. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048]

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 3. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 Municipal Elections. Election of Judges and County Officers. Section 3. All judged elected by the electors of the State at large may be elected at either a general or municipal election, as circumstances may require. All elections for judges of the courts for the several judicial districts, and for county, city, ward, borough, and township officers, for regular terms of service, shall be held on the municipal election day; namely, the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each odd-numbered year, but the General Assembly may by law fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each House consenting thereto: Provided, That such elections shall always be held in an odd-numbered year. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 3. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 4, 1913 Municipal Elections. Election of Judges and County Officers. Section 3. All judged elected by the electors of the State at large may be elected at either a general or municipal election, as circumstances may require. All elections for judges of the courts for the several judicial districts, and for county, city, ward, borough, and township officers, for regular terms of service, shall be held on the municipal election day; namely, the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each odd-numbered year, but the General Assembly may by law fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each House consenting thereto: Provided, That such elections shall be held in an odd-numbered year: Provided further, That all judges for the courts of the several judicial districts holding office at the present time, whose terms of office may end in an odd-numbered year, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of January in the next succeeding even-numbered year. [Source: 1913 Pa. Laws 1477] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 3. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Municipal Election Day; Offices to be Filled on Election Day. Section 3. All judged elected by the electors of the State at large may be elected at either a general or municipal election, as circumstances may require. All elections for judges of the courts for the several judicial districts, and for county, city, ward, borough, and township officers, for regular terms of service, shall be held on the municipal election day; namely, the Tuesday next following the first Monday of November in each odd-numbered year, but the General Assembly may by law fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each House consenting thereto: Provided, That such elections shall be held in an odd-numbered year: Provided further, That all judges for the courts of the several judicial districts holding office at the present time, whose terms of office may end in an odd-numbered year, shall continue to hold their offices until the first Monday of January in the next succeeding even-numbered year. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1901 Method of Conducting Elections. Secrecy. Section 4. All elections by the citizens shall be by ballot or by such other method as may be prescribed by law: Provided, That secrecy in voting be preserved. [Source: 1901 Pa. Laws 882] 

ARTICLE VIII. SECTION 6. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1901 Uniformity of Election Laws. Registration of Electors. Section 7. All laws regulating the holding of elections by the citizens or for the registration of electors shall be uniform throughout the State, but laws regulating and requiring the registration of electors may be enacted to apply to cities only, provided that such laws be uniform for cities of the same class. [Source: 1901 Pa. Laws 881] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1928 Election and Registration Laws; Voting Machines. Section 7. All laws regulating the holding of elections by the citizens, or for the registration of electors, shall be uniform throughout the State, except that laws regulating and requiring the registration of electors may be enacted to apply to cities only, provided that such laws be uniform for cities of the same class, and except further, that the General Assembly shall, by general law, permit the use of voting machines, or other mechanical devices for registering or recording and computing the vote, at all elections or primaries, in any county, city, borough or township of the Commonwealth, at the option of the electors of such county, city, borough or township, without being obliged to require the use of such voting machines or mechanical devices in any other county, city, borough or township, under such regulations with reference thereto as the General Assembly may from time to time prescribe. The General Assembly may from time to time prescribe the number and duties of election officers in any political subdivision of the Commonwealth in which voting machines or other mechanical devices authorized by this section may be used. [Source: 1927 Pa. Laws 1050]   

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Section 7 renumbered as Section 6. Election and Registration Laws. Section 6. All laws regulating the holding of elections by the citizens, or for the registration of electors, shall be uniform throughout the State, except that laws regulating and requiring the registration of electors may be enacted to apply to cities only, provided that such laws be uniform for cities of the same class, and except further, that the General Assembly shall by general law, permit the use of voting machines, or other mechanical devices for registering or recording and computing the vote, at all elections or primaries, in any county, city, borough, incorporated town or township of the Commonwealth, at the option of the electors of such county, city, borough, incorporated town or township, without being obliged to require the use of such voting machines or mechanical devices in any other county, city, borough, incorporated town or township, under such regulations with reference thereto as the General Assembly may from time to time prescribe. The General Assembly may, from time to time, prescribe the number and duties of election officers in any political subdivision of the Commonwealth in which voting machines or other mechanical devices authorized by this section may be used. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered to ARTICLE VIII, Section 7. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 9. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 10. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered to ARTICLE VIII, Section 8. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII. SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1928 Fixing Election Districts. Section 11. Townships and wards of cities or boroughs, shall form or be divided into election district of compact and contiguous territory, in such manner as the court of quarter sessions of the city or county in which the same are located may direct; but the courts of quarter sessions, having jurisdiction therein, shall have power to divide or change the the boundaries of election districts whenever the court of the proper county shall be of opinion that the convenience of the electors and the public interests will be promoted thereby. [Source: 1927 Pa. Laws 1043] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1943 Fixing Election Districts Section 11. Townships and wards of cities and boroughs shall form or be divided into election districts of compact and contiguous territory and their boundaries fixed and changed in such manner as may be provided by law. [Source: 1943 Pa. Laws 917] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE VIII, Section 9. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 12. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE VIII, Section 10. Viva Voce Elections. Section 10. All elections by persons in a representative capacity shall be viva voce or by automatic recording device publicly indicating how each person voted. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 13. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 14. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1945 District Election Officers. Section 14. District election boards shall consist of a judge and two inspectors, who shall be chosen at municipal elections for such terms as may be provided by law. Each elector shall have the right to vote for the judge and one inspector, and each inspector shall appoint one clerk. The first election board for any new district shall be selected, and vacancies in election boards filled, a shall be provided by law. Election officers shall be privileged from arrest upon days of election, and while engaged in making up and transmitting returns, except upon a warrant of a court of record or judge thereof, for an election fraud, for felony, or for wanton breach of the peace. In cities they may claim exemption from jury duty during their tenure of service. [Source: 1945 Pa. Laws 1419] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 14. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE VIII, Section 11. Election Officers. District election boards shall consist of a judge and two inspectors, who shall be chosen at municipal elections for such terms as may be provided by law. Each elector shall have the right to vote for the judge and one inspector, and each inspector shall appoint one clerk. The first election board for any new district shall be selected, and vacancies in election boards filled, as shall be provided by law Election officers shall be privileged from arrest upon days of election, and while engaged in making up and transmitting returns, except upon warrant of a court of record or judge thereof, for an election fraud, for felony, or for wanton breach of the peace. In cities they may claim exemption from jury during their terms of service. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 15. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE VIII, Section 12. Disqualifications for Service as Election Officer. No person shall be qualified to serve as an election officer who shall hold, or shall within two months have held any office, appointment or employment in or under the government of the United States, or of this State, or of any city, or county, or of any municipal board, commission or trust in any city, save only notaries public and persons in the National Guard or in a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States; nor shall any election officer be eligible to any civil office to be filled at an election at which he shall serve, save only to such subordinate municipal or local offices, below the grade of city or county offices, as shall be designated by general law. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 16. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 17. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE VIII, Section 13. Contested Elections. Section 13. The trial and determination of contested elections of electors of President and Vice-President, members of the General Assembly, and of all public officers, whether State, judicial, municipal or local, and contests involving questions submitted to the electors at any election shall be by the courts of law, or by one or more of the law judges thereof. The General Assembly shall, by general law, designate the courts and judges by whom the several classes of election contests shall be tried and regulate the manner of trial and all matters incident thereto; but no such law assigning jurisdiction, or regulating its exercise, shall apply to any contest arising out of an election held before its passage. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII. SECTION 18. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 8, 1949 Absentee Voting by Disabled War Veterans. Section 18. The General Assembly may, by general law, provide a manner in which, and the time and place at which, qualified war veteran voters, who may, on the occurrence of any election, be unavoidably absent from the State or county of their residence because of their being bedridden or hospitalized due to illness or physical disability contracted or suffered in connection with, or as a direct result of, their military service, may vote and for the return and canvass of their votes in the election district in which they respectively reside. [Source: 1949 Pa. Laws 2138] 

ARTICLE VIII. SECTION 18. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 3, 1953 Absentee Voting by Disabled War Veterans. Section 18. The General Assembly may, by general law, provide a manner in which, and the time and place at which, qualified war veteran voters may vote, who are unable to attend at their proper polling places because of being bed-ridden or otherwise physically incapacitated, and may provide for the return and canvass of their votes in the election district in which they respectively reside. Positive proof of being bed-ridden or otherwise physically incapacitated shall be given by affidavit or by certification of a physician, hospital or other authenticated source. [Source: 1953 Pa. Laws 1496] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 18. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 19. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1957 Absentee Voting Due to Illness or Absence. Section 19. The Legislature may, by general law, provide a manner in which, and the time and place at which, qualified voters who may, on the occurrence of any election, be unavoidably absent from the State or county of their residence because of their duties, occupation or business require them to be elsewhere or who, on the occurrence of any election, are unable to attend at their proper polling places because of illness or physical disability, may vote, and for the return and canvass of their votes in the election district in which they respectively reside. [Source: 1957 Pa. Laws 1019] 

ARTICLE VIII, SECTION 19. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE VIII, Section 14. Absentee Voting. Section 14. (a) The Legislature shall, by general law, provide a manner in which, and the time and place at which, qualified electors who may, on the occurrence of any election, be absent from the municipality of their residence, because their duties, occupation or business require them to be elsewhere or who, on the occurrence of any election, are unable to attend at their proper polling places because of illness or physical disability or who will not attend a polling place because of the observance of a religious holiday or who cannot vote because of election day duties, in the case of a county employee, may vote, and for the return and canvass of their votes in the election district in which they respectively reside. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1048] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1923 Uniformity of Taxation; Exemptions. Section 1. All taxes shall be uniform, upon the same class of subjects, within the territorial limits of the authority levying the tax, and shall be levied and collected under general laws; but the General Assembly may, by general laws, exempt from taxation public property used for public purposes, actual places of religious worship, places of burial not used or held for private or corporate profit, institutions of purely public charity, and real and personal property owned, occupied, and used by any branch, post, or camp of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, and marines. [Source: 1923 Pa. Laws 1117] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 4, 1958 Uniformity of Taxation; Exemptions. Section 1. All taxes shall be uniform, upon the same class of subjects, within the territorial limits of the authority levying the tax, and shall be levied and collected under general laws; but the General Assembly may, by general laws, exempt from taxation public property used for public purposes, actual places of religious worship, places of burial not used or held for private or corporate profit, and institutions of purely public charity, and real and personal property owned, occupied, and used by any branch, post, or camp of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, and marines; and the General Assembly may, by general laws, set up standards and qualifications for private forest reserves, and making special provision for the taxation thereof. [Source: 1957 Pa. Laws 1021] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1961 Uniformity of Taxation; Exemptions. Section 1. All taxes shall be uniform, upon the same class of subjects, within the territorial limits of the authority levying the tax, and shall be levied and collected under general laws; but the General Assembly may, by general laws, exempt from taxation public property used for public purposes, actual places of religious worship, places of burial not used or held for private or corporate profit, institutions of purely public charity and real and personal property owned, occupied, and used by any branch, post, or camp of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, and marines; and the General Assembly may, by general laws, set up standards and qualifications for private forest reserves, and make special provision for the taxation thereof. Citizens and residents of this Commonwealth, who served in any war or armed conflict in which the United States was engaged and were honorably discharged or released under honorable circumstances from active service, shall be exempt from the payment of all real property taxes upon the residence occupied by the said citizens and residents of this Commonwealth imposed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania or any of its political subdivisions if, as a result of military service, they are blind, paraplegic, or double or quadruple amputees, and if the State Veterans' Commission determines that such persons are in need of the tax exemptions granted herein. [Source: 1961 Pa. Laws 1785] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 1B. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1928 Reciprocal Exemptions. Section IB. Taxation laws may grant exemptions or rebates to residents, or estates of residents, of other States which grant similar exemptions or rebates to residents, or estates of residents, of Pennsylvania. [Source: 1927 Pa. Laws 1049] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1918 Limitation on State Debt. Section 4. Limitation of State Debt. No debt shall be created by or on behalf of the State, except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue, repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the State in war, or to pay existing debt; and the debt created to supply deficiencies in revenue shall never exceed in the aggregate, at any one time, one million dollars: Provided, however, That the General Assembly, irrespective of any debt, may authorize the State to issue bonds to the amount of fifty millions of dollars for the purpose of improving and rebuilding the highways of the Commonwealth. [Source: 1917 Pa. Laws 1264] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 4 AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1923 Section 4. Limitation of State Debt. No debt shall be created by or on behalf of the State, except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue, repel invasions, suppress insurrection, defend the State in war, or to pay existing debt; and the debt created to supply deficiencies in revenue shall never exceed, in the aggregate at any one time, one million dollars: Provided, however, That the General Assembly, irrespective of any debt, may authorize the State to issue bonds, to the amount of one hundred millions of dollars, for the purpose of improving and rebuilding the highways of the Commonwealth. [Source: 1923 Pa. Laws 1118] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1911 Municipal Debt. Section 8. The debt of any county, city, borough, township, school district, or other municipality or incorporated district, except as herein provided, shall never exceed seven per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such municipality or district incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the assent of the electors thereof at a public election in such manner as shall be provided by law; but any city, the debt of which now exceeds seven per centum of such assessed valuation, may be authorized by law to increase the same three per centum, in the aggregate, at any one time, upon such valuation, except that any debt or debts hereinafter incurred by the city and county of Philadelphia for the construction and development of subways for transit purposes, or for the construction of wharves and docks, or the reclamation of land to be used in the construction of a system of wharves and docks, as public improvements, owned or to be owned by said city and county of Philadelphia, and which shall yield to the city and county of Philadelphia current net revenue in excess of the interest of said debt or debts and of the annual installments necessary for the cancellation of said debt or debts, may be excluded in ascertaining the power of the city and county of Philadelphia to become otherwise indebted: Provided, That a sinking-fund for their cancellation shall be established and maintained. [Source: 1911 Pa. Laws 1160]

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1915 Municipal Debt. Section 8. The debt of any county, city, borough, township, school district or other municipality or incorporated district, except as herein provided, shall never exceed seven per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such municipality or district incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the consent of the electors thereof at a public election in such manner as shall be provided by law; but any city, the debt of which on the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, exceeded seven per centum of such assessed valuation, and has not since been reduced to less than such per centum, may be authorized by law to increase the same three per centum in the aggregate, at any one time, upon such valuation. The city of Philadelphia, upon the conditions hereinafter set forth, may increase its indebtedness to the extent of three per centum in excess of seven per centum upon such assessed valuation for the specific purpose of providing for all or any of the following purposes,--to wit: For the construction and improvement of subways, tunnels, railways, elevated railways, and other transit facilities; for the construction and improvement of wharves and docks, and for the reclamation of land to be used in the construction of wharves and docks, owned or to be owned by said city. Such increase, however, shall only be made with the assent of the electors thereof at a public election, to be held in such manner as shall be provided by law. In ascertaining the borrowing capacity of said city of Philadelphia, at any time, there shall be excluded from the calculation a credit where the work resulting from any previous expenditure, for any one or more of the specific purposes here above enumerated shall be yielding to said city an annual current net revenue; the amount of which credit shall be ascertained by capitalizing the annual net revenue during the year immediately preceding the time of such ascertainment. Such capitalization shall be accomplished by ascertaining the principal amount which would yield such annual current net revenue, at the average rate of interest, and sinking-fund charges payable upon the indebtedness incurred by said city for such purposes, up to the time of such ascertainment. The method of determining such amount, so to be excluded or allowed as a credit, may be prescribed by the General Assembly. In incurring indebtedness for any one or more of said purposes of construction, improvement, or reclamation, the city of Philadelphia may issue its obligations maturing not later than fifty years from the date thereof, with provision for a sinking-fund sufficient to retire said obligation at maturity, the payments to such sinking-fund to be in equal or graded annual instalments. Such obligations may be in an amount sufficient to provide for and may include the amount of the interest and sinking-fund charges accruing and which may accrue thereon throughout the period of construction and until the expiration of one year after the completion of the work for which said indebtedness shall have been incurred; and said city shall not be required to levy a tax to pay said interest and sinking-fund charges, as required by section ten of article nine of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, until the expiration of said period of one year after the completion of such work. [Source: 1915 Pa. Laws 1101] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1918 Municipal Debt. Section 8. The debt of any county, city, borough, township, school district, or other municipality or incorporated district, except as provided herein, and in section fifteen of this article, shall never exceed seven (7) per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, but the debt of the city of Philadelphia may be increased in such amount that the total city debt of said city shall not exceed ten per centum (10) upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such municipality or district incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two (2) per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the consent of the electors thereof at a public election in such manner as shall be provided by law. In ascertaining the borrowing capacity of the said city of Philadelphia, at any time, there shall be excluded from the calculation and deducted from such debt so much of the debt of said city as shall have been incurred, and the proceeds thereof invested, in any public improvements of any character which shall be yielding to the said city an annual current net revenue. The amount of such deduction shall be ascertained by capitalizing the annual net revenue from such improvement during the year immediately preceding the time of such ascertainment; and such capitalization shall be estimated by ascertaining the principal amount which would yield such annual, current net revenue, at the average rate of interest, and sinking-fund charges payable upon the indebtedness incurred by said city for such purposes, up to the time of such ascertainment. The method of determining such amount, so to be deducted, may be prescribed by the General Assembly. In incurring indebtedness for any purpose the city of Philadelphia may issue its obligations maturing not later than fifty (50) years from the date thereof, with provision for a sinking-fund sufficient to retire said obligations at maturity, the payment to such sinking-fund to be in equal or graded annual or other periodical instalments. Where any indebtedness shall be or shall have been incurred by said city of Philadelphia for the purpose of the construction or improvement of public works of any character from which income or revenue is to be derived by said city, or for the reclamation of land to be used in the construction of wharves or docks owned or to be owned by said city, such obligations may be in an amount sufficient to provide for, and may include the amount of, the interest and sinking-fund charges accruing and which may accrue thereon throughout the period of construction, and until the expiration of one year after the completion of the work for which said indebtedness shall have been incurred; and said city shall not be required to levy a tax to pay said interest and sinking-fund charges as required by section ten, article nine of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, until the expiration of said period of one year after the completion of said work. [Source: 1917 Pa. Laws 1265] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1920 Municipal Debt. Section 8. The debt of any county, city, borough, township, school district, or other municipality or incorporated district, except as provided herein, and in section fifteen of this article, shall never exceed seven (7) per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, but the debt of the city of Philadelphia may be increased in such amount that the total city debt of said city shall not exceed ten per centum (10) upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such municipality or district incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two (2) per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the consent of the electors thereof at a public election in such manner as shall be provided by law. In ascertaining the borrowing capacity of the city of Philadelphia, at any time, there shall be deducted from such debt so much of the debt of said city as shall have been incurred, or is about to be incurred, and the proceeds thereof expended, or about to be expended, upon any public improvement, or in the construction, purchase, or condemnation of any public utility, or part thereof, or facility therefor, if such public improvement or public utility, or part thereof, whether separately, or in connection with any other public improvement or public utility, or part thereof, may reasonably be expected to yield revenue in excess of operating expenses sufficient to pay the interest and sinking-fund charges thereon. The method of determining such amount, so to be deducted, may be prescribed by the General Assembly. In incurring indebtedness for any purpose the city of Philadelphia may issue its obligations maturing not later than fifty (50) years from the date thereof, with provision for a sinking-fund sufficient to retire said obligations at maturity, the payment to such sinkingfund to be in equal or graded annual or other periodical installments. Where any indebtedness shall be or shall have been incurred by said city of Philadelphia for the purpose of the construction or improvements of public works or utilities of any character, from which income or revenue is to be derived by said city, or for the reclamation of land to be used in the construction of wharves or docks owned or to be owned by said city, such obligations may be in an amount sufficient to provide for, and may include the amount of, the interest and sinking-fund charges accruing and which may accrue thereon throughout the period of construction, and until the expiration of one year after the completion of the work for which said indebtedness shall have been incurred; and said city shall not be required to levy a tax to pay said interest and sinkingfund charges as required by section ten, article nine of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, until the expiration of said period of one year after the completion of said work. [Source: 1919 Pa. Laws 1238] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1951 Municipal Debt. Section 8. The debt of any county, city, borough, township, school district, or other municipality or incorporated district, except as provided herein, and in section fifteen of this article, shall never exceed seven (7) per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such county, municipality or district incur any debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two (2) per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the consent of the electors thereof at a public election in such manner as shall be provided by law. The debt of the city of Philadelphia may be increased in such amount that the total debt of said city shall not exceed thirteen and one-half (13 1/2) per centum of the average of the annual assessed valuations of the taxable realty therein, during the ten years immediately preceding the year in which such increase is made, but said city shall not increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding three (3) per centum upon such average assessed valuation of realty, without the consent of the electors thereof at a public election held in such manner as shall be provided by law. No debt shall be incurred by, or on behalf of, the county of Philadelphia. In ascertaining the debt-incurring capacity of the city of Philadelphia at any time, there shall be deducted from the debt of said city so much of such debt as shall have been incurred, or is about to be incurred, and the proceeds thereof expended, or about to be expended, upon any public improvement, or in construction, purchase, or condemnation of any public utility, or part thereof, or facility therefor, if such public improvement or public utility, or part thereof, or facility therefor, whether separately, or in connection with any other public improvement or public utility, or part thereof, or facility therefor, may reasonably be expected to yield revenue in excess of operating expenses sufficient to pay the interest and sinking fund charges thereon. The method of determining such amount, so to be deducted, shall be as now prescribed, or which may hereafter be prescribed by the General Assembly. In incurring indebtedness for any purpose the city of Philadelphia may issue its obligations maturing not later than fifty (50) years from the date thereof, with provision for a sinking fund to be in equal or graded annual or other periodical installments. Where any indebtedness shall be or shall have been incurred by said city of Philadelphia for the purpose of the construction or improvement of public works or utilities of any character, from which income or revenue is to be derived by said city, or for the reclamation of land to be used in the construction of wharves or docks owned or to be owned by said city, such obligations may be in an amount sufficient to provide for, and may include the amount of, the interest and sinking fund charges accruing and which may accrue thereon throughout the period of construction, and until the expiration of one year after the completion of the work for which said indebtedness shall have been incurred; and said city shall not be required to levy a tax to pay said interest and sinking fund charges as required by section ten of this article until the expiration of said period of one year after the completion of said work. [Source: 1951 Pa. Laws 2212] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 15. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 4, 1913 Municipal Indebtedness for Certain Public Works. Section 15. Municipal Indebtedness for Certain Public Works. No obligations which have been heretofore issued, or which may hereafter be issued, by any county or municipality, other than Philadelphia, to provide for the construction or acquisition of waterworks, subways, underground railways or street railways, or the appurtenances thereof, shall be considered as a debt of a municipality, within the meaning of section eight of article nine of the Constitution of Pennsylvania or of this amendment, if the net revenue derived from said property for a period of five years, either before or after the acquisition thereof, or, where the same is constructed by the county or municipality, after the completion thereof, shall have been sufficient to pay interest and sinking-fund charges during said period upon said obligations, or if the said obligations shall be secured by liens upon the respective properties, and shall impose no municipal liability. Where municipalities or counties shall issue obligations to provide for the construction of property, as herein provided, said municipalities or counties may also issue obligations to provide for the interest and sinking-fund charges accruing thereon until said properties shall have been completed and in operation for a period of one year; and said municipalities and counties shall not be required to levy a tax to pay said interest and sinking-fund charges, as required by section ten of article nine of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, until after said properties shall have been operated by said counties or municipalities during said period of one year. Any of the said municipalities or counties may incur indebtedness in excess of seven per centum, and not exceeding ten per centum, of the assessed valuation of the taxable property therein, if said increase of indebtedness shall have been assented to by three-fifths of the electors voting at a public election, in such manner as shall be provided by law. [Source: 1913 Pa. Laws 1479] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 16. ADDED BY AMENDMENT NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Soldiers' Bonus. Section 16. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four of this Constitution, the State may be authorized by law to create debt and to issue bonds, to the amount of fifty millions of dollars, for the payment of compensation to certain persons from this State who served in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States during the war between the United States and Spain, between the twenty-first day of April, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and the thirteenth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, or who served in the China Relief Expedition, in the Philippines or Guam, between the twenty-first day of April, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and the fourth day of July, one thousand nine hundred and two, or who served in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States during the World War, between the sixth day of April, one thousand nine hundred and seventeen, and the eleventh day of November, one thousand nine hundred and eighteen. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1558] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 16. ADDED BY AMENDMENT NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Toll Bridges. Section 16. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four, of this Constitution, the General Assembly may provide, by law for the issue of bonds, to the amount of ten millions of dollars, for the purpose of acquiring toll bridges, and may, by law, provide that, upon the acquisition of any such bridge, tolls may be charged for the use thereof, sufficient to pay the interest and sinking fund charges on such bonds and the cost of the maintenance of such bridges, until the bonds issued have been retired and such bridges are freed of tolls. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1566] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 17. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Authorization of State to Borrow Money. Section 17. The Governor, the Auditor General, and the State Treasurer, immediately upon the adoption of this amendment by the electors, may borrow an amount not exceeding twenty-five million dollars to defray the expenses of the State government for the biennium beginning June first, one thousand nine hundred thirty-three; provided the General Assembly, at its regular session of one thousand nine hundred thirty-three, has authorized the borrowing of money for this purpose. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1561] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 18. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1945 Gasoline Taxes and Motor License Fees Restricted. Section 18. All proceeds from gasoline and other motor fuel excise taxes, motor vehicle registration fees and license taxes, operators' license fees and other excise taxes imposed on products used in motor transportation after providing therefrom for (a) cost of administration and collection, (b) payment of obligations incurred in the construction and reconstruction of public highways and bridges shall be appropriated by the General Assembly to agencies of the State or political subdivisions thereof; and used solely for construction, reconstruction, maintenance and repair of and safety on public highways and bridges and air navigation facilities and costs and expenses incident thereto, and for the payment of obligations incurred for such purposes, and shall not be diverted by transfer or otherwise to any other purpose, except that loans may be made by the State from the proceeds of such taxes and fees for a single period not exceeding eight months, but no such loan shall be made within the period of one year from any preceding loan, and every loan made in any fiscal year shall be repayable within one month after the beginning of the next fiscal year. [Source: 1945 Pa. Laws 1418] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 19. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Special Assessment for Transit Facilities in Philadelphia. Section. 19. The city of Philadelphia, in constructing, for the benefit of the inhabitants thereof, transit subways, rapid transit railways, or other local transit facilities for the transportation of persons or property, shall have the power, in order the more justly to distribute the benefits and costs of such transit facilities, to levy special assessments against such properties, whether abutting or not abutting upon said transit facilities, as are or will be specially and particularly benefited by the construction or operation of such transit facilities; such power to be exercised in accordance with existing or with future laws or pursuant to statutes enacted prior to the adoption of this amendment but made effective by it. Such special assessments, when so levied, may be made payable presently when levied or in installments over a period of years, with or without interest, and shall immediately, when so levied, be deducted from any indebtedness incurred for such purposes in calculating the debt of such city. Such city may acquire by eminent domain either the fee or less estate or easements in land necessary for the construction or operation of such transit facilities or for the disposal of earth or material excavated in the construction thereof or for other incidental purposes; but this provision shall not create any additional powers for the condemnation of any railroad or street railway in operation. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1562] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 21. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1945 Bonds Authorized for Special Purposes. Section 21. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four of this Constitution the Commonwealth may be authorized by law to create debt and to issue bonds to the amount of fifty million dollars ($50,000,000) for the construction of public buildings, highways, drainage and sanitary systems, anti-stream pollution and flood control projects for purposes of reforestation, and for the rehabilitation and hospitalization of war veterans. [Source: 1945 Pa. Laws 1420]

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 22. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 8, 1949 Soldiers' Bonus. Section 22. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may be authorized by law to create debt and to issue bonds to the amount of $500,000,000 for the payment of compensation to certain persons from this Commonwealth who shall have served in the armed forces of the United States or of any of her allies during World War II, between the seventh day of December, one thousand nine hundred forty-one and the second day of September, one thousand nine hundred forty-five, for the service of such persons to their country, whether or not they be living when distribution shall be made, and if such persons shall be deceased when distribution shall be made, such deceased person's compensation shall be paid to his spouse, child, children or parents. [Source: 1949 Pa. Laws 2137] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 23. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1957 Korean Veterans' Bonus. Section 23. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may be authorized, by law, to create debt and to issue bonds to the amount of one hundred fifty million dollars ($150,000,000) for the payment of compensation to certain persons from this Commonwealth, who served in the armed forces of the United States or any of her allies during the Korean Conflict, between June twenty-fifth, one thousand nine hundred fifty, and July twenty-seventh, one thousand nine hundred fifty-three, for the service of such persons to their country, whether or not they are living when distribution is made, and, if the person is deceased when distribution is made, the deceased person's compensation shall be paid to his spouse, child, children or parents. The law authorizing the creation of the debt and the issuance of the bonds shall not take effect until revenue-raising measures are enacted, which the Senate and House of Representatives, by concurrent resolution, declare and deem sufficient to amortize the amount to be borrowed and paid. The revenue derived from such revenue-raising measures shall be used only for the payment of the debt created, as herein provided, and the measures shall provide for their termination when sufficient funds are accumulated to pay the debt. [Source: 1957 Pa. Laws 1020]  

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 24. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 5, 1963 Project Seventy. Section 24. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may be authorized by law to create debt and to issue bonds to the amount of seventy million dollars ($70,000,000) for the acquisition of land for State parks, reservoirs and other conservation and recreation and historical preservation purposes, and for participation by the Commonwealth with political subdivisions in the acquisition of land for parks, reservoirs and other conservation and recreation and historical preservation purposes, subject to such conditions and limitations as the General Assembly may prescribe. [Source: 1963 Pa. Laws 1403] 

ARTICLE IX, SECTION 25. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Section 25. In addition to the purposes stated in article nine, section four of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may be authorized by law to create a debt and issue bonds in the amount of five hundred million dollars ($500,000,000) for a Land and Water Conservation and Reclamation Fund to be used for the conservation and reclamation of land and water resources of the Commonwealth, including the elimination of acid mine drainage, sewage, and other pollution from the streams of the Commonwealth, the provision of State financial assistance to political subdivisions and municipal authorities of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the construction of sewage treatment plants, the restoration of abandoned strip-mined areas, the control and extinguishment of surface and underground mine fires, the alleviation and prevention of subsidence resulting from mining operations, and the acquisition of additional lands and the reclamation and development of park and recreational lands acquired pursuant to the authority of article nine, section twenty-four of this Constitution, subject to such conditions and liabilities as the General Assembly may prescribe. [YY] 

ARTICLE X. SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III. Section 14. Public School System. Section 14. The General Assembly shall provide for the maintenance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public education to serve the needs of the Commonwealth. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037]

ARTICLE X. SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III. Section 15. Public School Money Not Available to Sectarian Schools. Section 15. No money raised for the support of the public schools of the Commonwealth shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian school. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE X, SECTION 3. REPEALED, MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE XI. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 16. National Guard to be Organized and Maintained. Section 16. The citizens of this Commonwealth shall be armed, organized and disciplined for its defense when and in such manner as may be directed by law. The General Assembly shall provide for maintaining the National Guard by appropriations from the Treasury of the Commonwealth, and may exempt from State military service persons having conscientious scruples against bearing arms. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037] 

ARTICLE XII, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 Election of State and Local Public Officers. Section 1. All officers, whose selection is not provided for in this Constitution, shall be elected or appointed as may be directed by law: Provided, That elections of State officers shall be held on a general election day, and elections of local officers shall be held on a municipal election day, except when, in either case, special elections may be required to fill unexpired terms. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE XIV, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1945 County Officers. Section 1. County Officers. County officers shall consist of sheriffs, coroners, prothonotaries, register of wills, recorders of deeds, commissioners, treasurers, surveyors, auditors or controllers, clerks of the courts, district attorneys and such others as may be from time to time be established by law; and no treasurer shall be eligible for the term next succeeding the one for which he may be elected. [Source: 1945 Pa. Laws 1419] 

ARTICLE XIV, SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 Election of County Officers. Terms. Vacancies. Section 2. County officers shall be elected at the municipal elections and shall hold their offices for the term of four years, beginning on the first Monday of January next after their election, and until their successors shall be duly qualified; all vacancies not otherwise provided for, shall be filled in such manner as may be provided by law. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948] 

ARTICLE XIV, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1909 County Commissioners and Auditors. Section 7. Three county commissioners and three county auditors shall be elected in each county where such officers are chosen, in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven and every fourth year thereafter; and in the election of said officers each qualified elector shall vote for no more than two persons, and the three persons having the highest number of votes shall be elected; any casual vacancy in the office of county commissioner or county auditor shall be filled, by the court of common pleas of the county in which such vacancy shall occur, by the appointment of an elector of the proper county who shall have voted for the commissioner or auditor whose place is to be filled. [Source: 1909 Pa. Laws 948]

ARTICLE XIV, SECTION 8. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1951 Abolition of County Offices in Philadelphia. Section 8. (1) In Philadelphia all county offices are hereby abolished, and the city shall henceforth perform all functions of county government within its area through officers selected in such manner as may be provided by law. (2) Local and special laws, regulating the affairs of the city of Philadelphia and creating offices or prescribing the powers and duties of officers of the city of Philadelphia, shall be valid notwithstanding the provisions of section seven of article three of this Constitution. (3) All laws applicable to the county of Philadelphia shall apply to the city of Philadelphia. (4) The city of Philadelphia shall have, assume and take over all powers, property, obligations and indebtedness of the county of Philadelphia. (5) The provisions of article fifteen, section one of the Constitution shall apply with full force and effect to the functions of the county government hereafter to be performed by the city government. (6) This amendment shall become effective immediately upon its adoption. (7) Upon adoption of this amendment all county officers shall become officers of the city of Philadelphia, and, until the General Assembly shall otherwise provide, shall continue to perform their duties and be elected, appointed, compensated and organized in such manner as may be provided by the provisions of this Constitution and the laws of the Commonwealth in effect at the time this amendment becomes effective, but such officers serving when this amendment becomes effective shall be permitted to complete their terms. [Source: 1951 Pa. Laws 2211] 

ARTICLE XV, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1922 Home Rule. Section. 1. Cities may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors of any town or borough having a population of at least ten thousand shall vote at any general or municipal election in favor of the same. Cities, or cities of any particular class, may be given the right and power to frame and adopt their own charters and to exercise the powers and authority of local self-government, subject, however, to such restrictions, limitations, and regulations, as may be imposed by the Legislature. Laws also may be enacted affecting the organization and government of cities and boroughs, which shall become effective in any city or borough only when submitted to the electors thereof, and approved by a majority of those voting thereon. [Source:1921 Pa. Laws 1234] 

ARTICLE XV, SECTION 4. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1928 City of Pittsburgh Charter. Section 4. The General Assembly is hereby authorized to provide for the consolidation of the county, poor districts, cities, boroughs and townships of the county of Allegheny, and the offices thereof, into a consolidated city and county, with the constitutional and legal capacity of a municipal corporation, to be known as the City of Pittsburgh, and to provide for a charter for its government. The said charter shall be submitted to the electors of said county, at a special election to be provided for therein. If the majority of the electors voting thereon, in the county as a whole, and at least two-thirds of all the electors voting thereon in each of a majority of the cities, boroughs and townships thereof, vote in the affirmative, the act shall take effect for the whole county. If rejected, the said charter may be resubmitted to the electors in original, new or modified form, at any subsequent election until adopted. It shall be competent, subject to the police power of the State, for the Legislature to provide in said charter: 1. For the exercise, by the consolidated city, of all the powers and duties vested in the county of Allegheny, and the poor districts thereof, and such other powers appropriate to a municipality as may be specified therein, except such powers as are specifically reserved by this section to the municipal divisions herein provided for. 2. For the election, by the people of the consolidated city, of a board of commissioners, the number to be fixed by the charter, in lieu of present county commissioners, in which board shall be vested all the powers of the consolidated city and county, except as otherwise provided in the charter. 3. For the organization of a government for the consolidated city and county, and for the election or appointment of the constitutional and other necessary officers thereof, and for their powers and duties. 4. For the organization of all courts, other than those of record, in the consolidated city, and for the procedure thereof, and for the appointment of judges and officers thereof, which courts shall exercise the jurisdiction, powers and duties of the magistrates, aldermen and justices of the peace, and such other powers as may be conferred by law. 5. For the transfer to the consolidated city of the property and indebtedness of the county of Allegheny, and the poor districts thereof, and of such property and indebtedness of the cities, boroughs and townships thereof as relate to the powers and duties of said consolidated city, and to provide for an equitable adjustment and payment of such indebtedness, and for this purpose, any taxation therein shall be uniform taxation within the meaning and intent of other provisions of this constitution. 6. For the assessment of property for taxation, the levying and collection of taxes, and the payment of the cost of any public improvement, in whole or in part, by special assessment upon abutting and non-abutting property materially benefitted thereby, and, for this purpose, real estate so charged shall be classified as urban, suburban and rural, and assessments made in accordance with such classifications. 7. For the creation, by the board of commissioners, of districts for the purpose of regulating the location, height, area, bulk and use of buildings and premises. 8. For the creation, by the board of commissioners, of special districts for the purpose of acquiring, constructing, maintaining, operating or contracting for, any public property, work, improvement, utility or service not for the exclusive benefit of any one municipal division, and for the payment of the costs and maintenance of such property, work, improvement, utility or service there may be special taxes levied throughout such special districts respectively, separate and apart from the general city tax: Provided, however, That it is the intent of this section that substantial powers be reserved to the cities, boroughs and townships situated in Allegheny County. To this end the charter shall provide for the continued existence of the said cities, boroughs and townships, as municipal divisions of the consolidated city, under their present names and forms of government, subject to the laws provided for government of municipalities of their respective forms and classes, except as provided in the charter, and with their present boundaries, provided that the city of Pittsburgh may be designated by a term other than city and may be divided into two or more municipal divisions, and that any two or more municipal divisions of the consolidated city may, with the consent of a majority of the electors voting thereon in each of such divisions at any general or special election, be united to form a single municipal division. The said municipal divisions shall have and continue to possess the following powers: 1. The constitutional and legal capacity of municipal corporations, except as limited in the charter. 2. The power to lay and collect taxes and to incur indebtedness, subject to the limitations which are or may be imposed by law upon cities, boroughs or townships of corresponding classification, for the purpose of carrying out any lawful power of said divisions. 3. The power to acquire, own, construct, maintain, operate or contract for all kinds of public property, works, improvements, utilities or services, which shall be within the municipal division, and principally for the use and benefit of the inhabitants thereof, provided this power shall not be taken to include the construction and maintenance of through-traffic streets and bridges, tunnels, subways and appurtenances thereof, nor main or trunk lines for sewer, power and water service, running through more than one municipal division, and designated as such by the board of commissioners. 4. The power to maintain a local police force, and local fire department, with the necessary buildings, appurtenances and equipment therefor, which may be supplemental to the police force and fire department of the consolidated city. 5. The power to establish a limitation of indebtedness for the consolidated city and the municipal divisions thereof, provided that the total of the indebtedness of the consolidated city and the municipal divisions thereof shall not, in the aggregate, exceed the limits of the total indebtedness allowed by the Constitution to the county and to the separate municipalities. 6. All other powers not specifically granted by the charter to the consolidated city: Provided, however, That a municipal division may surrender, by majority vote of the electors voting thereon at any general or special election, any of its powers to the consolidated city, subject to the acceptance thereof by the board of commissioners. The said charter may be amended by the Legislature, subject to ratification by a majority of the electors of the consolidated city voting thereon at any general or special election: Provided, That no amendment reducing the powers of municipal divisions shall be effective unless ratified by a majority of the electors voting thereon in each of a majority of said divisions. [Source: 1927 Pa. Laws 1051]

ARTICLE XV, SECTION 4. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933. Sec. 4. Consolidation in Allegheny County. The General Assembly is hereby authorized to provide for the consolidation of the county, poor districts, cities, boroughs and townships of the county of Allegheny, and the offices thereof, into a consolidated city and county, with the constitutional and legal capacity of a municipal corporation, to be known either as "Greater Pittsburgh" or "Metropolitan Pittsburgh" or "City of Pittsburgh (Metropolitan)," and to provide for a charter for its government, and to fix the name thereof in the charter. The said charter shall be submitted to the electors of said county at a special or general election to be provided for therein. If the majority of the electors voting thereon in the county as a whole, and at least a majority of the electors voting thereon in each of a majority of the cities, boroughs and townships thereof, vote in the affirmative, the act shall take effect for the whole county. If rejected, the said charter may be resubmitted by the county commissioners to the electors from time to time, but not oftener than once in two years, until adopted. Until a charter shall have been adopted as aforesaid, the General Assembly shall have the power to amend or modify the said charter, in which event the charter as amended or modified shall be submitted and resubmitted as aforesaid. It shall be competent, subject to the police power of the State, for the Legislature to provide in said charter: I. For the exercise by the consolidated city of all the powers and duties vested in the county of Allegheny, and the poor districts thereof, and such other powers appropriate to a municipality as may be specified therein, except such powers as are specifically reserved by this section to the municipal divisions herein provided for. II. For the election of a board of commissioners, by districts and/or at large, by the electors of the consolidated city, the number to be fixed by the charter, in lieu of present county commissioners, in which board shall be vested all the powers of the consolidated city, except as otherwise provided in the charter. III. For the organization of a government for the consolidated city, and for the appointment and/or election of any officers thereof, created by the Constitution, or otherwise, and to provide for their powers and duties. IV. For the organization and reorganization of all courts, other than those of record, in the consolidated city, and for the appointment and/or election of the judges and officers thereof, and for the procedure thereof, including the right to provide that said court or courts be courts of record, which courts may exercise the jurisdiction, powers and rights of the magistrates, aldermen and justices of the peace, and such other jurisdiction and powers as may be conferred by law. V. For the transfer to, and the assumption by, the consolidated city of the property and indebtedness of the county of Allegheny, and the poor districts thereof, and of such property and indebtedness of the cities, boroughs and townships thereof as relate to the powers and duties of said consolidated city, and to provide for an equitable adjustment and arrangement with respect thereto and for the payment of such indebtedness, and, for this purpose, any taxation therein, arising thereby, shall be uniform taxation within the meaning and intent of other provisions of the Constitution. VI. For the assessment of property for taxation, the levying and collecting of taxes, and the payment of the cost of any public or municipal improvement, in whole or in part, by special assessment upon abutting and non-abutting property specially benefited thereby. VII. For the creation, by the board of commissioners, of districts for the purpose of regulating the location, height, area, bulk and use of building and premises. VIII. For the creation of indebtedness by the consolidated city within the limits now or hereafter imposed upon cities by other provisions of the Constitution. Such power to create indebtedness shall not impair the power of the municipal divisions, within the consolidated city, to create indebtedness within the limits now or hereafter imposed upon such municipalities by other provisions of the Constitution. IX. For the creation, by the board of commissioners, of special districts for the purpose of carrying on or carrying out any public or municipal improvement, not for the exclusive benefit of any one municipal division; and for the payment of the cost and maintenance of such property or improvement, or any part thereof, special taxes may be levied throughout such special districts, respectively, separate and apart from the general consolidated city tax. X. For the exercise of such powers by the consolidated city as may be necessary to enable it to carry on and carry out such municipal and metropolitan powers and functions as the General Assembly may deem advisable and expedient and for the general welfare of the said city and its inhabitants: Provided, however, That it is the intent of this section that substantial powers be reserved to the cities, boroughs and townships situated in Allegheny County. To this end the charter shall provide for the continued existence of the said cities, boroughs and townships, as municipal divisions of the consolidated city, under their present names and forms of government, subject to the laws now or hereafter provided for government of municipalities of their respective forms and classes and to the powers conferred upon the consolidated city by the charter, and with their present boundaries. Any two or more of said municipal divisions, or portions thereof, may, with the consent of a majority of the electors voting thereon in each of such divisions at any special or general election, be united to form a single municipal division. Wherever a portion of a municipal division is involved, the election shall be held in the entire municipal division of which the said portion is a part. The said municipal divisions shall have and continue to have the following powers: I. The constitutional and legal capacity of municipal corporations. II. The power to levy and collect taxes and to incur indebtedness, subject to the limitations which are or may be imposed by law upon cities, boroughs or townships of corresponding classification, for the purpose of carrying out any lawful power of said divisions. III. The power to acquire, own, construct, maintain, operate or contract for all kinds of public property, works, improvements, utilities or services, which shall be within the municipal division and, where authorized by law, without the limits of the municipal division. Subject, however, to the right and power of the consolidated city to construct, acquire, maintain and/or operate public works, improvements, utilities and services of all kinds, including through streets, highways and/or bridges, for the use and benefit of the consolidated city and its inhabitants. IV. The power to maintain a local police force and local fire department, either paid or volunteer, with the necessary buildings, appurtenances and equipment therefor, which may be independent of or supplemental to the police force and fire department of the consolidated city. V. All other powers not specifically granted by the charter to the consolidated city: Provided, however, That a municipal division may surrender, by a majority vote of the electors voting thereon at any general or special election, any of its powers to the consolidated city, subject to the acceptance thereof by the board of commissioners. After a charter has been adopted as aforesaid, it may be amended as follows: I. In matters which relate only to the powers of the consolidated city and which do not reduce the powers of any one or more of the municipal divisions thereof by the General Assembly: Provided, however, That any amendment which changes or modifies the form of government of the consolidated city, or the number of or manner of election of the commissioners thereof, shall not be effective until such amendment shall have been ratified by a majority of the electors of the consolidated city voting thereon at a general or special election, to be provided for in said amendment. II. In matters which reduce the powers of any one or more of the municipal divisions of the consolidated city, such amendment, enacted by the General Assembly, shall not be effective until it shall have been ratified at a general or special election, to be provided for in said amendment, by a majority of the electors voting thereon in all of the municipal divisions affected thereby, and by a majority of the electors voting thereon in each of a majority of said municipal divisions so affected. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1563]

ARTICLE XV, SECTION 5. ADDED BY AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Acquisition of Land for Highway Construction. Section 5. The General Assembly may authorize cities to take more land and property than is needed for actual construction in the laying out, widening, extending or relocating highways or streets connecting with bridges crossing streams, or tunnels under streams, which form boundaries between this and any other State, but the additional land and property, so authorized to be taken, shall not be more than sufficient to form suitable building sites on such highway or streets; nor shall the authority hereby conferred be exercised in connection with the laying out, widening, extending or relocating of any highway or street at a point more than three miles distant from the approach to any such bridge or tunnel. After so much of the land and property has been appropriated for such highways or streets as is needed therefor, the remainder may be sold or leased and any restrictions imposed thereupon which will preserve or enhance the benefit to the public of the property actually needed for the aforesaid public use. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1563]

ARTICLE XVI, SECTION 7. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1956 Stocks and Bonds. Increase Indebtedness. Section 7. No corporation shall issue stocks or bonds except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law. [Source: 1955 Pa. Laws 2057]

ARTICLE XVI, SECTION 11. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1920 Incorporation of Banks and Trust Companies. Section 11. The General Assembly shall have the power by general law to provide for the incorporation of banks and trust companies, and to prescribe the powers thereof. [Source: 1919 Pa. Laws 1238] 

ARTICLE XVII. REPEALED ON MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1053] 

ARTICLE XVII, SECTION 3. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 7, 1933 Equal Transportation Rights. Section 3. All individuals, associations and corporations shall have equal rights to have persons and property transported over railroads and canals, and no undue or unreasonable discrimination shall be made in charges for, or in facilities for, transportation of freight or passengers within the State or coming from or going to any other State. [Source: 1933 Pa. Laws 1561] 

ARTICLE XVII, SECTION 8. AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 6, 1923 Granting of Passes Limited. Section 8. No railroad, railway, or other transportation company shall grant free passes, or passes at a discount, to any person except officers or employes of the company and clergymen. [Source: 1923 Pa. laws 1119] 

ARTICLE XVIII, TITLE. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1052] ARTICLE XVIII, AMENDMENTS 

ARTICLE XVIII, SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Section 1. Proposal of Amendments by the General Assembly and Their Adoption. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each House, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and the Secretary of the Commonwealth shall causes the same to be published three months before the next general election, in at least two newspapers in every county in which such newspapers shall be published; and if, in the General Assembly next afterwards chosen, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each House, the Secretary of the Commonwealth shall cause the same again to be published in the manner aforesaid; and such proposed amendment or amendments shall be submitted to the qualified electors of the State in such manner, and at such time at least three months after being so agreed to by the two Houses, as the General Assembly shall prescribe; and, if such amendment or amendments shall be approved by a majority of those voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Constitution; but no amendment or amendments shall be submitted oftener than once in five years. When two or more amendments shall be submitted they shall be voted upon separately. (a) In the event a major emergency threatens or is about to threaten the Commonwealth and if the safety or welfare of the Commonwealth required prompt amendment of this Constitution, such amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives at any regular or special session of the General Assembly, and if agreed to by at least two-thirds of the members elected to each House, a proposed amendment shall be entered on the journal of each House with the yeas and nays taken thereon and the official in charge of statewide elections shall promptly publish such proposed amendment in at least two newspapers in every county in which such newspapers are published. Such amendment shall then be submitted to the qualified electors of the Commonwealth in such manner, and at such time, at least one month after being agreed to by both Houses as the General assembly prescribes. (b) If an emergency amendment is approved by a majority of the qualified electors voting thereon, it shall become part of this constitution. When two or more emergency amendments are submitted they shall be voted on separately. [Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1052] 

AMENDMENT OF NOVEMBER 2, 1915. The legislature failed to designate any article or section for this amendment. Registering, Transferring, Insuring and Guaranteeing Land Titles. Laws may be passed providing for a system of registering, transferring, insuring of and guaranteeing land titles by the State, or by the counties thereof, and for settling and determining adverse or other claims to and interest in lands the titles to which are so registered, transferred, insured, and guaranteed; and for the creation and collection of indemnity funds; and for carrying the system and powers hereby provided for into effect by such existing courts as may be designated by the Legislature, and by the establishment of such new courts as may be deemed necessary. In matters arising in and under the operation of such system, judicial powers, with right of appeal, may be conferred by the Legislature upon county recorders and upon other officers as designated. Such laws may provide for continuing the registering, transferring, insuring, and guaranteeing such titles after the first or original registration has been perfected by the courts, and provision may be made for raising the necessary funds for expenses and salaries of officers, which shall be paid out of the treasury of the several counties. [Source: 1915 Pa. Laws 1104] 

Formerly an unnumbered section. Renumbered as ARTICLE III, Section 21. AMENDMENT OF MAY 16, 1967 Land Title Registration. Section 21. Laws may be passed providing for a system of registering, transferring, insuring of and guaranteeing land titles by the State, or by the counties thereof, and for settling and determining adverse or other claims to and interest in lands the titles to which are so registered, transferred, insured, and guaranteed; and for the creation and collection of indemnity funds; and for carrying the system and powers hereby provided for into effect by such existing courts as may be designated by the Legislature, and by the establishment of such new courts as may be deemed necessary. In matters arising in and under the operation of such system, judicial powers, with right of appeal, may be confer red by the Legislature upon county recorders and upon other officers as designated. Such laws may provide for continuing the registering, transferring, insuring, and guaranteeing such titles after the first or original registration has been perfected by the courts, and provision may be made for raising the necessary funds for expenses and salaries of officers, which shall be paid out of the treasury of the several counties.[Source: 1967 Pa. Laws 1037]